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Genevieve D'Haucourt

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a subject to exploit. It was a passion. Victor Hugo wrote Our Lady of Paris and The Burgraoes. Viollet-le-Duc re or

he built the Château de' Pierrefonds in a supposedly restored style. Covers were made "to the cathedral", pendulums "troubadour style"... In a word, a lot of imagination and a bias decided "for" or "against" a

a time of which one thought more freely the less one knew about it. Such ramblings are believed to have contaminated numerous second-hand Benethic manuals.

third hand, for which the average French actually knows very little about this story, which is ours. However, many wise men, and the greatest, have

studied with care. The Benedictine scholars, the long list of scholars trained by the school of Charles, the magnificent publishers of Monumenta Germaniae Historica in Germany! girl, from the Rolls-S i i n e s; from the Selden soci, X t y - ; In England,

'I have published a lot of documents. They have de-:! have developed excellent works on many aspects, we were

1 have provided magisterial syntheses, but their results appear to only reach the public slowly, even to those who consider themselves informed, because the legends -whose falsehood have been peremptorily demonstrated=- still find believers (for example, the "terrors of Anamil") .When the Middle Ages began; our country already does

much that had acquired certain features: ethnic wealth, aspect of the rural landscape, tools. The Galla that was to become France in the course of that millennium was populated for centuries by little-known races: the last wave was the Celts. The invasions from the 4th to the 10th century, by the Visigoths,

. Burgundies, Franks, Arabs, Bretons, Normans, did not generally destroy or engulf the autochthonous population. The recent arrivals, whose number was not relatively considerable, were above all warriors. Having arrived alone, they formed families with the women of the country. In addition, with a few exceptions (Lower Britain), they quickly lost their language along with most of their customs and were absorbed by the native element. The appearance of the rural landscape had already been created in their

traits . essential. An agriculture that is lost = literally-mind- in the night of time had already given to the di-

different countries their physiognomy, the result of a certain way of understanding the relationship of man with nature and with his fellow men. In some territories, the peasants were grouped into dense cities and around them "campifias" spread out, where the fields were stretched out in strips. In other parts, the cultivators, individualists, were dispersed in a multitude of isolated hamlets and they cleared square or irregular fields. When danger came, the former formed a block to defend themselves, the latter hid in the forests or went to the sea.

Norman plantations, many lands became waste again, much of the field abandoned 1 0 invaded the boxwoods of the garden (our Boissy, La Boissierel.r. But what was lost to culture during the first part of the Middle Ages, was generally fully recovered , and COJ ;1 you grow, during the .second.From the 10th century polders dried up;From the 12th to the 14th century, [how many new individual

or collective (the latter, in the form of colonization with the foundation of a city by the impulse of the king, of a lord, of a bishop: our Bastide, Villeneuve...)! Perodssmontes and foundations were made in accordance with the already known cultural modes and not upsetting them, La Francia

of the Middle Ages was the continuation of a much older country. From a long time ago there were towns and many cities, and a network of trails and roads, not to mention. 'donate the solid roman routes.

Until the 11th century, the towns locked themselves up to better defend themselves, after I grew up, the cities multiplied. The face of our country, without changing fundamentally,

is defined around pre-existing traits. In the 14th century it took on its current appearance: among us there are very few groups that did not exist at that time. . As regards the agricultural and domestic economy of the Middle Ages,

Media, was also essentially inherited: the plow and the charrua, the distaff, the spindle and the loom, the way of building huts and houses, cooking recipes such as the far Breton (which in England is called pudding) are older than the history and were transmitted to us. Complex craft traditions were perpetuated: the old potters of Saint-Jean (Korea de Redon), the last of which have just died,



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!~ ~ ait ~ e C ; : ' ~ ~ : ~ : : ~ o : ~ r : ; , ~ : ~ ~ e P i ~ ) ~ ~ P C i 6 ne u n a The flower of civilization: letters, arts, sciences,

good manners, even fantasies and. fashions, are refinements that require leisure. A society can only elaborate them to the extent that men are not absorbed

totally and continuously, due to the tasks that UA~sity and vital necessity imposes.. Well, the West knew the Iron Age that implied the almost total extinction of trade

. .. ' t

a general impoverishment. The countryside itself was devastated and had to be painfully rebuilt; E1grana yielded barely three times its seed, and about every ten years insufficient harvests caused shortages (this is the cycle of sunspots and recent famines in India). ~Jl.JLf:v.e:a;a_de._trabajo.cy..de.,_econOlni_a,but did not ~~change the margin of surplus to.that ..allows.flows and

oniu-;-tas essential tasks absorbed each and every one;


These were divided into two sectors: work on the land

and crafts~ (commissioned to the people), security (military service, police, administration], which were the responsibility of the nobles. This division of labor is a sufficient indication of the enormous material difficulties that weighed on everyone and only allowed them to survive. 10 required.

However, medieval society found in their faith a

~~~::~~f~~~e.~: ' t !~~~~"fo~~r~' ; ;~;~~~;u~::;~;penances: 10.aSu. .J?ioe1 clerq s sqJ:>n;i.

more original from that time: we find, for example,

religious who became baptizers of bridges I in Europe: the famous Avignon Bridge is due to. Saint Benezet. '"Facilitating the difficult river crossings was, in effect, a great work of mercy. 'Monks to nuns, at the cost of common life; of the obedience

resistance to a superior~" from the austere life that reduced to me .. the. 'for the map.-

I Benezet is resigned Benedict. [Translator's note. J

(maintenance of civilization. While »the laity:,)peasants, artisans or warriors, were totally absorbed by the vital material tasks, in the cloisters:( others. ~were left who. renounced form up~,i, family, to LIVE BU craving, to chat, to eat meat, that usn-o '', • ban simple clothes, .until completely deteriorated

) and, thanks to its voluntarily supported constraints I .. ' -,- ,-,' - _,_' ,

/ They had. time P9J"'!l aprellij&LJll~er.s_e$tc;ribirJo' studied! el1atin,[emailprotected],_8]}_~~gf?£rites: without them .•would.be.Peruvian\ almost completely ancient thought, and the Renaissance\ ' .. ' , .. . .

In the 16th century it would have been impossible. They knew theology and law in Iterature, they drew, they drew, they built, they sang (the plain chant has transmitted to us the forms Thus, they ensured the material omission of civilization, despite the fact that, thanks to the hours of prayer and meditation that were silent, they enjoyed the most precious and more rare. of Ios.ocios: the only one that allows the gestation of a true civilization, that is to say: -, spiritual. Asl,

They exercised, only at certain times, the ministry of thought and reflection, and it was they who created the type of Christian man, charitable, humble, obedient, detached from the "world", that all medieval society should have as. model (and that the .Imitation of Christ; written in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, and republished very often, has proposed to Christians to this day}. . '

The monastic expansion coincided with the hardest times of the Age. Nedia: !?onast~r~osbene(;Hctiru>s in times .of the .mvasions, Cluniac reform at the time of the devastations normal, -ref9rII"l~- citerd~~-, in 'full'feudal anarchy'. In certain aspects are\,fc-;-fS:favored by the

rudeness of society: because of the horror she had of the 008-query of the Merovingian court, a Saint Radegunde, for example, takes refuge in a cloister as soon as she can. Without the events, these delicate souls would have been 8 . 1 . " ' 1 0 -

gated by contemporary barbarism, thanks to . the monasteriesv were able to establish companies and not only keep their

ideal, but set a shining example of elias. By maintaining the high level of early medieval civilization, they prevented it from generally falling too low and stagnating, and still shortened the probationary period. To the

laymen provided them with role models, counselors, educators, and

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First chapter


1. Your conditions

Natural conciicio.s prevailed in little. They mediate much more force than in our .days .. Our .civilization.urban.izaci6n allowed us. "come (}er", ee-so-it is said, the cold and the heat, the .darkness of. the nights, the length ;of.Jas.

distances: all the inconveniences toJoscUll1€!S .ours

ancestors had to accommodate themselves, more or • less to how they do to one. our contemporaries of the sector. Rural, they had to adjust to a natural rhythm that they had not yet thought of;

abolish '. . ......',.. ,, /. The duration of the solar day, regulated, as, still does "in-~rcariipo;)a-}ornament', of,. work, the artificial lighting •.I l1 eruo<:,re!, exposed. to, dangers In addition, there were very rare trades in which night work was allowed. From one end of the society to the other, they rested more during. i i I, winter, they. worked more in the season: good, and the The same ~ schedule of 10 srnol 1asteries;

he adapted to it with flexibility. " , '.,,"Contr,1l_el_cold, there were no means of.perfect heating.

Tame'ble'satisfactory: It wasn't a lack of fuel. Be counted on the mob. Although coal was only mined on a small scale, wood was more or less abundant.

parts and thanks. to the rights of use, the poorest could go to pick up the dead branches in the neighboring forest. On the other hand f. I hardly know, I avoided knocking down the wood. green and commit

15 .

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made under the seas. Larger and mostly populated, not by agricultural producers or owners of the surrounding land, but by artisans, merchants, men of law, administrators, and officials, the neighboring cities with their lands had to be economically annexed, and more frequently , in 10 admin~trati~o-,. since six

or eight ,kjJ.ometres around you could come on foot, on horseback or by cart, supplying the market, or the revsndeleors.-Iee "regs; '31'05" • I 'or another thing, the cities had enough money and men for the maintenance of their immediate access routes and provide.the P R r s - i l l , . . . . . But the conglomerate will only grow more if it depends

of one. more extensive region...j? Therefore, it is precise, not only that said region is fertile, and has good relations with the city, but that transportation to it is easy and, consequently, that it is well communicated by waterways. Paris and the Flemish cities developed rapidly.

since they were able to secure the domain of the

part of their country situated behind the coasts, rich in poi' 10 in addition, with which they communicated by navigable means. Thanks to the Seine, the Marne, the Oise and Yonne, 14th-century Paris could feed and supply food

Arimas to more than 20:0.00 Qihabitant.es. Regarding the transportation medics, they did not use

then the mechanical force. At sea, the force of the wind could still be used, but in rivers, as on land, it is necessary to use human or animal force. Therefore, all continental transports were determined by

at the speed of man, horse, donkey or oxen


We know that a man on foot: covers an average of 41 7 kilometers in one hour; that.a.horse hardly travels 10 kilometers per man, and that, in addition, on bad 'ground' it is difficult to walk. A fast convoy remembers 40 or 60 kilometers in an hour: Therefore, France was much larger than it is now at the signal of a pedestrian. 'It took twenty days to cross it from end to end, twenty-nine days to go from Canterbury to Rome. What's the wonder of the world map that still included so many wonderful or unknown areas? So! Well, for the man of the Ed!ld_~~ciia, the__~pa

and the[emailprotected]~..ru:Jll.p'ehmore considerable than the one to which they have been, currently demoted.. However, they were disposed of with a secret liberality that has almost lost our modern activity. Proximity was then defined by the distance that ee

can .travel, back and forth, between the start and the set

of the sun. One.was traveling when he was qtl~, .QMJ!F..~l_~che.fu~x~L4~. 't ~ U: cas.a.a.vidaecoriofuiCii, adiiiriistrative, pontica, was therefore organized in small rcircumscriptions whose size depended on the length of the man's stride or the stride of his mount. •Those little ancient paiseafics

They are our current cantons.. Each one, living on itself

He himself developed particularities, originalities or.especial-Iities: ways of speaking (pronunciations and expressions), of dressing, eating, having fun, working, his.saints, his great men and also.his rights. Patriotism occurred in the first place and above all at the level of the. small countries v Wars, which were the scourge of the feudal era

Until the times of San Luis, almost always they were fights of one manor against another, that is to say, of city against city, or of canton against. They show us that men could only be required of them for a limited time, forty days maximum, and that, almost always, they had the right to return in the afternoon to sleep in. .his house and refusing to advance when the troops left the limits of the manor.

When the cities emancipated themselves, they established alliances with each other, or at least relationships. But all of this usually did not make it above the surface of one of our dis-

tritos 0.Urio'ofourofparliaments. Asil in the 14th century, Saitit~A.'ntonin,in the serious'easos, did not make decisionswithout prior consultation with Villefranche INajacoCordes,and au thepolitical horizon he did not go further. from Cahorso Albi,Martelproceeds same as Dome,Souillac and Cahors: from Pro-vins it passed to Troyes 0a Sens and to Paris.

Economic life was equally decentralized,as we saw before.' Except for the cities that are not

developed before the XU to XII I I centuries and which seemed considerable as soon as they exceeded =-rare ·.···time- 20,000 inhabitants, consumption is practiced strictly


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well the means to escape from the routine or carrel' adventures,

In addition, the Church and the public powers appreciated him

considerable, sometimes imposed, sometimes encorned, sometimes discouraged, sometimes censored or prohibited.

by.the green route, but so:1well -I went further: from all over Europe they walked towards Mont-Saint-Michel, TierraSalita. Rome, .C9mpostela, ColQnia, Canterbury. The pilgrimage, alone or in a group, could last months or years. The itineraries were so frequent that they were dotted with holy stations in the rich and large churches: such as Magdalena de Vezelay, or Santa Fe de Conques. When Joan of Arc took up arms, her mother went to pray for her at Notre-Dame de Puy, 700 kilometers from Domrerny. A whole bunch. variegated s8d~s, endlessly squared POI'

the roads of the Middle Ages. In the fourteenth century, there were from 12 to 13 travelers per day. That was also why the news spread and everyone became aware of a vast Christianity. Sedentary or not, the people of the Middle Ages were

Almost forced by their way of existence. to a severe physical training: the peasants who constituted nine tenths of the population lived in the open air, and also the nobles for whom hunting, in the absence of war, was 'the main occupation. Comb' the travelers, they suffered from the cold. the::alOr, the Rain. In addition, the violent misunderstanding that today divides populations according to whether they are evil or not did not exist then. When an abbey kept the chronicle of important events, it recorded frosts and storms along with the deaths of princes and battles. . . ....., ..... In addition, each one was accustomed to conditions of vi

udas, Traveling France and Italy from one extreme to another was an ordeal that did not frighten a pilgrim, nor a merchant, a student, nor a religious or even a sexagenarian, who had to make the trip on foot. Spending the day on horseback will be the common fate of the great lords, the salesmen, their servants, many lawmen, and the most insignificant couriers from the small towns. The fatigue was the same, the shelters of the stage, analogous. The barefoot, the king, the merchant... the clergyman could enjoy the same travel anecdotes and fnitemizfirRt?un!.1IDaI). ..

'f )

In summary, the men of the Middle Ages, directly exposed to natural conditions, h ' 3 S owed certain characteristics: the individual plane, the development

of the 'physical qualities' (robustness, toughness) and of the corresponding moral qualities (patiencevcourage at least passive), a certain rudeness of existence, a rhythm of life

that it adjusted to the days and the seasons; on the economic level, the obligation to satisfy the individual with the resources

11 are from.1 country, 10 . that er:tntn~Ra lad·limitabclior:,de ·l~s "pe(fesdie-

ties'[.ingemo, ymmigrations .. e po ation more than.,\ products: on the social level, a great decentralization.clon\ COIl infinity of particularisms, but also the informal fraternity1 that is born.from e}(periences anru<:>;gas.

II. La uioienda" ..; "

We know housing much better. medieval due to

that are still preserved

among us numerous examples

pl~es·de.ella.Her plan was simple: a more or less large room,

where they lived There she worked, received, drank, ate and slept. Asl Bran,.even in recent times,many of our Western farms. ,.~stapie: the eomuny for all uses was the room of both the peasants and the bourgeoisie, and even of the lords of dahorca and cu~hil1o. *At most, these had masonry walls, while

that the villain was content with adobes.. ., .However, next to the house of habltaqQP, •it was necessary

'to dig, the basement pafa--the vill(j';-with~ cellar for, the

. g r r u : l , q ,el.troj

for 'the' wheat to grind, the shed for. the hay'1.the wagons, the stable.cel crib, and the pigsty. The room

The peasantry, the nobleman, or the villain, surrounded themselves, then, with useful constructions whose number and number varied according to the importance of the land, and therefore, of according to the wealth of the character... r. This simple plan became altered or complicated when life ceased to be familiar... When a large number of people gathered, it was necessary to provide them with different homes,

* ..Seigneur haut-justicie; (Lord of Horcay Cuchillo]: the one who had the right .to tl.l ~ yerjustice in his territory. [Translator's note. J


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The house of the town, or the: shack.: lac "ca$eta"

nelhnno, forced the.people.of the MecUa Age,

and whose layout is inspired at the same time.in co-siderations of aesthetics, Legis~s' and a fan of economy, forced 'the houses to enclose Be; or, to rise.'J' to the. streets to ••e.r .narrow, .;Free.space, .which remained considerable in England,except in the center,.of the city" congestion, .•n. others

p~l-teS$e r~doubt t\.uIfa, square~and a cemetery to the church's hall, sometimes a few small pla1jolettes on: one of which, the piR?ta was raised, to gardens of convents, patios of 31 houses. It was also built on the bridges: those of Paris, for example, •.•are totally lined· with houses on both sides.Also ~in London, Bristol, York.

Frequently, .the streets had an irregular layout that we found to be very picturesque.~A pal'ecet was~not something systematically searched for, although .had taken advantage of it with elegance, because at the time of the creation.of new villas and villas, the urQ. Elfi~tas of the time, who to tell the truth610 were surveyors, would trace parallel streets and per-

pendicular, reinforcing regular blocks,colllos are noted in Aigues~Mortes.in .Mpntf(3rrand. In. groupings" w to santiguas and often depending on .lords .different .lords, colll0Lim0ges. which grew~simultaneously~around.the.diocese ••••of. castle of the, .counts, it would have been .difficult to correct by means of' plans .of .group ..and.in detriment of acquired rightsjI the anarchy born of lots is spontaneous-

taneos. The streets in the Middle Ages were often dirty,

parfait&. of a suitable organization for cleaning, Lahe-

Diondez de Paris made Felipe Augusto faint. In principle, each one was responsible for the front of his house and should, in the first place, not dirty it or fill it with debris, 'materials> or. peels: secondly, clean it. In fact, when the constituted space devours the patios and gardens,

I needed to throw the filth in front of the door; . the

free animals, dogs and especially pigs, not to mention. The poultry

with interested parties, some private companies that are in charge

ron'deello. However, the streets, generally not paved, continued to be poorly cared for; , to traverse a

f street; San Luis received on his cape the content of an-orr-

Inai,c.llyo owner.'owner was not.cautelav.in view that D:owas now passersby; The king, quite self-possessed, so as not to get angry, after an investigation, gave him a prebend (study scholarship) to the author of the accident, a student who had to get up so early to get to work. of an arrival of the prin-

Prince, the city, full of fervor, cleaned the streets that it covered with reeds and grass, and hung sheets or tapestries on the facades. The flow of sewage was made in certain cities,

like Paris, through a system of canals that flowed into the river. (In Strasbourg, this confluence was carefully checked to have certain criminals showered there, under the mocking glances of a circle of onlookers.) Other cities were content with puddles where, from time to time, clean water was made to run, as Limoges wrote. In Salisbury, there was talk of deeper branches of the river.

Clean water was carried by aqueduct systems, which replaced the Roman ones, or better yet. with major' A


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furnished with furniture to sit on. Then they were used: sheets of straw that were covered with a cloth if they wanted to do honor to a guest or if luxury was accustomed. The students listened to their classes sitting directly on the straw, but a novel of the time shows us an emperor's Iahii installed in his room with his servants, on bales of straw covered with an embroidered veil 'with

coat of arms and leaning against the bed that served as a backrest. This . type of seat had "the vetJaja of being warm in the winter. The churches had some cupboards, solid furniture:

also the private ones, from the XIV century. In.the houses of the rich the furniture was completed with

upholstery. that allowed renoyar. the decoration, • recreating his own house in the course of trips so frequent in the life of the great, In winter, the air currents cut off; Finally, they allowed, in the style of the Japanese screens, to divide the common rooms into private rooms. A group of danglers was also called a club [cNnwala].

Skins were sometimes put on the floor, but more generally carpets of branches, straw in winter, reeds, gladioli, and aromatic plants (mint, verbena, etc.), in summer: The royal palace, when it renovated them, In the thirteenth century there were some rugs, we note that on feast days I passed by a prince,

of a procession) the streets were decorated like a rich interior: covered with herbs and . of flowers on the floor; upholstery or draperies stretched out on the walls. This decoration has been used until our .elias in the towns of the west for the processions of the.Corpus. ..

Domestic utensils were rather scarce in their variety, but abundant in quantity, at least in the 14th century, since each house was the home of a family craft. 1;8 Crockery was: often simple earthenware or tin (bowls, in which liquid food was sipped, plates, cutlery, jugs for drinking), completed by wooden utensils [velicomenes, barrels for them. precious wines and brandy.. plates, covered.s); The

~ocma was equipped like those of our farms... there was at least a tripod (since it was cooked on the stove),

one or several pots of barre or bronze, a bronze pan, a ladle, a pestle and a mortar to prepare various sauces, especially garlic, which was one of the main condiments of 1 1 3 . medieval kitchen and.whose use.later, has tended to be restricted to southern countries.Important houses multiplied the number.of these utensils, adding grills, copper pots, and morrillos, as well 13.-

In addition, in general, in the kitchen or its dependencies

There was a tub to make 113.ejia and bath barrels. - _ , - , .

a camano for bacon, an ax for chopping wood, buckets, a shovel, brooms, a cauldron, often.a.trough, 'This is how the products of the region were prepared for the con-

.. high family; Or those of .108 surroundings, .bought in the market. The worker tended to be satisfied when he had his grana for bread, his bacon, his comfits, his salty or smoked meats, his jam, his honey,

wine, his canvases and cloths, all done in the house of whom. ha-

bia creddoen 1aregion. This was even the case in French Canada until 1860.

IV. the dress

The dress of 113.. Mediaeval age comes from the ancient costume and

the Gaul. Of the latter, keep, for the men, the use of braies [panties] (underpants, pants or breeches made of cloth or waistbands by means of a strap. rel-braiel)

(Women did not wear them, and, in the countryside, they continued without wearing them until the beginning of this century) and, for both sexes, the bliaud [brial] that the elegant world would let fall into disuse in the thirteenth century, but which was will keep until our days

in the peasant's costume: 113.lusa, the female child's wardrobe has always been long; the one of the

Men, short, except when it came to ceremonial or liturgical clothing, imitated from antiquity, lengthened around 1140, despite the criticism of moralists (a similar fashion seemed effeminate to them), and it was cut again from 113.half of the 14th century, at the cost of new restrictions that this time reproached the indecency of costumes that cinched the lines of the body.At this time, only people who


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Regarding the hairstyle, the women kept their hair long, intertwined it in braids that they did not hesitate to enlarge with false hairpieces, timid corpses, with great scandal on the part of the preachers. At first these braids' floated, then they were collected in horns or chains over the ears, wrapped in a net, collected in a bun on the neck... . . The girls, for at least 10 in party dress, arrive

their hair was floating!l.l1tes{and the Virgin was often re-presented in this form, in old paintings] as a sign of des,uYirginity,.This hairstyle is still preserved in some of our cantons, especially ~nOues8ant.The man who in those 10th century I I I shaved completely

her face as in our days, she had her hair cut on the nape of the neck and collected the end in a roll, the elegant 8e to curl with tongs. To, keep the tabellera or dis-

In her absence, she wore a small three-piece bonnet (preserved in children's costumes in Brittany, especially in Plougastel).

If they were old, widows, or devout, they would wear a wide toea that enclosed their faces, sometimes covering their chins, concealing a neck that could be wrinkled, and that fell on their chests. Or almi-donated; in many monastic garments. Above the bonnet or headdress was worn, if necessary,

a candle (for women only), a hat or cap

rjrote(p¥~ both sexes) •.The hat ~nide. pajaparaelvenmo: c6nlcb 0 plano.de broad wings, ~daptaclo. to its function of defending from the sun. In the winter, it was cie. Felt trio, generally in the form of a qunparU1,. with a P r q W ~ . ii or reinforcement button on the vertex of the crown, analogous to the thread that is placed in the middle of our Basque berets .. "At parties at

r n e . The knot was replaced by a crown of silverware or flowers, which even today constitutes the headdress of 1. to . 8 girlfriends.."''''The

.$ Serre-tete: bandage for the head: headdress rouy envoIvente .[Not iJ. of ltranslator. ]

"$ To this crown was called a "flower hat". It was made with violets, roses, marigolds... In Paris, the flower-sculptor trade was a profession different from any other that was enough to The "rosary" was a small hat, hence the name of the pious object, which is a small crown of grains that symbolize prayers, which resemble flowers.

elegant they put on turkey feather hats, the cha-peron [capirotej-de panode . Wool, often lined with J111fabric, or else with a light-colored silk, maintained for two centuries and until the end of the fifteenth century, a long anode and the most capricious shapes. The university costumes of Europe (without copying France) kept a rich variety of copies. Men and women took it off to- .

to say hello .The garments were complemented with gloves made of cloth or

cuet(), which in the Middle Ages were very useful. The ladies embroidered them. The lords demanded them as tributes

Ieudales: Throwing the~ante~ meant a challenge, offering your ~al1t~. It was a sign of surrender. The hunterss wore their azol' (3s0 their ~. falcons on the fist covered by a thick LEATHER glove. The canipesinos » had mufflers! *

to fiPi1ar.•~as brambles, natural thorns are ···.palizadas.Co~o .I{)s. American workers, the masons used glovesC:')9What work and calculations reveal that they.were.used by dozens, .

•.....•.The medieval~dieval costume, so simple, so practical and at the same time, so appropriate, could be very rich, due to its material or its ornamentation.•~this tendency at first was reserved for costumes priests and the ostentatious dresses of the princes: But, at the end of the XIII century. the bourgeoisie

V. To others

~asg~nt8sqe,)f iHaclan average age of the products 10 -

calesIa base ..d, and their food. Hence, the elaboration in "each country of particular culinary preparations and habits, of which many still subsist. The citizens had a more varied diet; as the urban markets supplied more and more

* Moufles cuirees: Lined gloves, with a single separation for the thumb, · [Hraductor's Note.J

34 35

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The aim pastry was very simple. They were known. The bufiuelos, the boats and the wafers, the special bread, the fruit, cream, or cheese cakes, and various types

of cookies. They.were.made.crems and nanes. There were fruit cakes as chocolates, and with-

files permmated with ginger, whose heart was an almond-

Pine tree or Almond tree, jams ~, honey, syrup... Various types of water were drunk, beer -in the West, late, citron and perry that were little appreciated-, but everywhere it came, whether it was imported, or manufactured in the

lX the same country, even if the

climate. The vinononnando had the reputation of an infamous brandy. Finally, from the XU century, it was distilled

grain tooth, in the fourteenth century, fruit brandy: 'L .As for menus, we find those splendid

almodrotes .senorials with oC(l.sibn of the holidays. Limiterno-. t ' 4' osnos here to evoke the commons. and cornen~s , . lU as suggestive.

En Normandy, losh.ombres quecumphan faex:as par~, la

Montebourg Abbey received in 312 for their income, per head and per day, a loaf of bread, peas for the stew, three

eggs and a quarter of cheese, or six eggs without cheese and the

The friars drink "as much as they please or bear": in Lent, they were given three herrings AND walnuts. In 1268 a couple concluded a life arrangement with

the monks of Beaumont-le. ..Roger. Elios left his little credit to the friars in exchange for them satisfying his needs for the rest of his life. It was made on the following bases: the convent supplied every day a conventual loaf, two "med~rulero3" loaves, a. gallon (four others?) of cider, beer drunk for 10.8 frru~s, a plate of meat three times a week and the other days six eggs without Lent 4 herrings. (Additionally, every month, a cel~min of lefi.arY' S 0 salaries* per year - close to 10 francs

of our current currency+- for clothing.) At the beginning of the 14th century, the sailors employed in the

service of the king 'receive for their daily: bread, beans and peas: as a drink, water. But their expenses. they were calculated (f-t 'lsueldos .per month) so that they would allow them to buy vmo

and meat whose monthly cost amounted to about 5 sueldos.

.. Sous: ancient copper coin (5 cents); in Spanish, salary.

r Translator's note.]

It is copied, as it is still done in some fields, with bowls, s~diaxas and knives, and often at the rate of one for every two people, but without plates, holders, chairs, napkins and. except on holidays or in rich houses without tablecloths, In the fourteenth century, the use of table linen became increasingly popular everywhere. when they put

tablecloths, these vastly overflowed the narrow tables and often reached the floor. The guests wiped their fingers on them, so that, at large meals, they were changed after the main services.

At the beginning of the meal, Iusmanes washed themselves in the fountain. In monasteries, the abbot, out of courtesy, poured water over the ears of two of his guests. In the stately homes, this service was lent by the squires, after the water had been blown, which was a way of announcing the meal. (infusions of rose petals, mint, verbena...). .

Afterwards, 18 soup was "soaked" in the bowls. (The soup was the piece of bread that was to be soaked in pottage or wine.) She ate it with a spoon. The meat, cut into pieces, was served on two slices, long pieces of bread that were soaked in the juice, and both things were eaten simultaneously, in a hurry, following. I don't know yet. lost. At large meals, people avoided eating the slices that were collected in baskets and distributed to the poor.

At stately tables, the cutting squires were in charge of supplying little by little the slice of their masters. Elsewhere, each one put his hand into the plate in turn,

and it was recommended to do it delicately and not put more than the tips of the fingers in the sauce. ~1 end of the meal, wine was served, which has become

poured into an English custom.





.. Corner l'eau: ancient expression that means to play a bugle. for

announce the moment of eating, which is the time to wash one's hands. (Translator's note.]


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Iornagno had a water hourglass, but they were very scarce and it was not until the fourteenth century that city hotels were adorned with jacq ue mards. "* At that time, astronomical clocks were also built. When it was necessary to measure time, various means were used: hourglasses (still used in our kitchens for - C O C I i 1 to I eggs lukewarm] ,

candles (Is noe~e s~divided into three candles. This means is still recommended; parali .J: hit the duration of the auctions against an annotary, but the dim~I}.sion: of the candles is too small for the "fire" be reduced to a few minutes}, duration of certain prayers (a Psalter, a Miserere, an Our Father-

tro . ' .},The man of the Middle Ages, at least the monk and the ha-

inhabitant of conglomerates, he woke up very early and loud bells; usually before starting the day so that, after washing and praying, he could start his work day at dawn. Toda soantigtl,!:l Fr!lPsia

keep these habits. .>

Even the lazy got up early, as we are told

that students who wanted to prolong the pleasures of

bed were inscribed preferentially in the use of the De-cretists who took place at the time of 'I'ercis, that is, at

nine in the morning. As soon as he woke up, following the custom that ~ Felipe

de Novarav' made the sign of the cross three times, in honor of the Trinity, and prayed a prayer, A bourgeois of Paris, who towards the end of the fourteenth century wrote a treatise on morality and domestic economics: for the use of his young wife. -given for her, the text of four morning prayers, ;pf!.ra" recite "to M,.aitinef?,;,Qal, wake you up in the morning" , or one,

and another, get up, and get dressed; and, after, get dressed, it will be fine (count.!), that it be fasting and before any other,

labor:,' •.,po~~~ •.e,sla,sorations 8e directed .to God and two to. laVirgert: He ' a g i x f l a primers: "Because of your sweet temperament, my thoughts turn to your holy justice and to fulfill your

'" Today there remains tkrrfl ixlOjm::quemards that refers to the figure of a warrior who strikes the hours on the bell of a clock. [Translator's note.]

.... It refers to the Menager of Paris: 'I'ratado cop:tposted in Paris in 1393. The author uses the term Menager also for. refer to its author. The term refers in general to the management of domestic IOSaslHl~OS. (Note

d -I tr aductor , J

good will Lord God almighty and enduring father that you have granted me to reach the beginning of this day by your holy virtue: deliver me from incurring in any danger, when I may fall into some mortal sin. ', Then he would dress, in the following order, according to one author of

the season: "In the morning, when you want to wash yourself, first put on your shirt, put on your panties, put on your jacket or your fustan (kind of vest), put on your hood, put on your calms (stockings), put on

your shoes, then put on your other clothes (garments), and fasten your belt (waist], and wash your hands, your fingers, your nails, your face.' ,/ As was still practiced in many corners of our fields, he did not proceed to washing until he had put on the dress, and then he limited himself to cleaning the parts of the body that were left~_and!sible, e~a:ra:Yliis~. they have perpetuated the custom: many people shared the same room and there were no private bathrooms,

. This~ does not mean that he ( ) _ s _ _ ~omb!~~ of that time were mca,2Bces de,_~!!_Javadomas cOIppl?to, that 8e did with him~~;O g(3sn.yg_<6 ,.9~lan£ede de Uricubo de aguii.E I people of) the villas and the people of-the-castles - C ' o ' n O C i r u i also the pleasures of bathing, which the monasteries reserved for the sick and convalescents, and of the which they abstained for the three days following a bloodletting. This entertainment was practiced in wooden vats that also served to pour the bleach. The bottom was covered with a canvas to avoid splinters capable of hurting the skin. Some, due to lack of adequate installation, underwent steam baths following a procedure reminiscent of the Finnish sauna: tiles 0

pebbles were heated on the fire; once hot, they were placed at the bottom of a tub, covered with a bottom of wood cut from different logs, and sprayed. The patient, wrapped in several rags to avoid burning, sat in the tub and there he dedicated himself to perspiring 1 or enough. These baths 8. home were taken in the morning, or at

return from a tiring or dirty exercise (travel, hunt, tournament...).

/ ~,r,es, ",temptahancml publicbaiios~s~a~J:U.Ui.e~asd~These ---- ~


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gentlemen PX?; present at court they received with the.king they made a.selection: this was the origin of an institution Ia d 1'·'


d I C· ...., , . e person

re a ores e council of the Palace.

In the city, the merchant artisan opened his store and worked with his workers or his apprentices, helping them, while his wife fixed up the house ibn per pro-vlSlOn~sp aydi? alphabew

Attached to the belt, they left for school. In those industrial centers like the Flemish cities

donrleQe~de e. 11th century lse.c()rlOcia capitalism, division

d?l trab

On the Greve square in Paris, the peones who were looking for work for the day and who Bealisted as porters, errand boys (assistants. (The port was under the square)) once they got the job, they did it without too much. They were zealous and did not hesitate to shorten the work of dinner with seasons in the tavern, in front of a glass of wine.

//' The doctor.went out to consult, dressed in a ••u long purple robe and a!~[{l1

L/ Las eailesestrecl1assellepaba1)degente. La$yu.ntas, Jos/horses, and donkeys.saddles; they took-to the market fish, le~bres, butter; eggs. The small 1llteSaI10S,

Too poor to have a shop, they passed by, tired, flying on their backs, shouting loudly to attract the customers:

So, pa?a.ban .eltra.pero, the candlestick that melted the fat in the same place, the tallow reserved for the maid. tooth would take...

lThe seotnerci.~tes sent the cailes servants to anuri-par .their mercCatlcla ..The.boys·of the innkeeper .paraded with a jug full of vmo and a velicomen /and offered' al'tra.rlseun.

They gave you a free test, then 10 received them in the store .. The advertising.cries.were intertwined. .

Even in the smallest villages there was 1;3.animation: the women who went to fetch the water.8 . the fountain and stayed up for a moment to talk, with their hands on their hips: the merchants who, behind an open window, .in-

terpelahan to the passers-by: a.beggar arrived: the .nifiasibanal-lavaderov-to the market; one would stop to speak a recluse couplet: which sometimes it was. a holy soul, but loved.epl1-dd la~ madre.pjadosa that vcentralized s .redistributed JodoSle$ gossip ...•• y. above all this profane tumult, from .vez .e li ' .when .a flight of bells, ,. .' ..

All this is not very.Ie.far.from us;i,(.l\,ll€)n pppavi--;avid in a small French town, and J10 .havl.st() ..1W.sat81t rapper, to the porcelain repairman, She has not.seen the shoemaker working at his job, not.doing in 1 8 small store (Ie vegetables and specialties.( he's around the Age 10.ed;ia), who hasn't seen the Yiejos sit in the sun while they talk, ethnizes women: rsee'

conversations there.:r;'Z'oQuiep has not chosen the.c~11Pins and chimes to mark the time, in)nataJaya. de,lail,lcq_l-dia and in the towers of the churches? 'I've hardly heard this l1acEipJ: 'had been since the 13th century. . .. .'

In the countryside, the workers.of the fields have not changed their passion and whose tools are sometimes the same. '.


Standing in front of his door, he exchanged jokes with .81.18 neighbors; the one in which

They delivered games of pupils. "One day when, towards a beautiful and serene time, our Menager of the 14th century recounts," they (some bourgeois) were gathered after eating, to have a drink together', . They had the idea of ​​going to surprise their wives and they found them, "some talking, the others playing bric,'a.~(.who catches?\A hot hand), piru;?-merilley" the other playing cards and other.leisure games with his' vecmasu playing tiers and bric·y8.$i

• Namesofcertain 'jl1~go~d~ la ~ W ~ k ; They have no corresponding

en espafil [Nota del tradiictot.] . .



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your lined smocks and your summer winter cloths. Put your shirt on the head of Iaoama

(behind the pillow) , your panties under the bed with all the braieul.' '*

The people of the Middle Ages ~acco.baba naked, covering-

Dose'io swnot the head with a bonnet or a fine cloth. The fashion of the night shirt was ~all_gurated._rQ~_the world (t-ecl~-_SlaStlCO, .for nesgede~ _l}pa reason: the regulations of the hosp. CODE • shirt;

viciual, J_~.cQS~r_e__vados .ia ..cama~ .If it is explained9u?by PVd()S:l1ose.ql~i(, they will tear the shirt until they have tucked themselves in.or betweenJ~the whistles and put it on the alcarice of Iamall9B!.lr (:\ipp) have it in the morning before getting out of bed.

until he went to bed, in the style of the Middle Ages. Lying down, he would blow out his candle. Our Aflenager tells us

than some closed, careless of the fire. tertian the dangerous customary turn off!. lrJa luzlallzand? on it, in flight, one of the prel,1das that they had just taken off, instead of blowing on it, as was appropriate, before going to bed.

hearing ring'.das •••I\1aitines" , recomeI1g~bIl· ,the.ivUm-agera his young tnllJer":"a.labad then ygreetedNuesLrO •Senorants of volvera.dorITlir' ' , L~ Tou.r-L~ndry recommendedtheir daughters . 'siernprs.Bpesewake up, pray for the deadqUe'ask.p.or~()s;,praythe Virgin.Mary" and "commend-

be to the StilltosYi~~~~9'" : iiNototlopass.you.n. santarnente .. LOsbanQs,

especially, each time worse reputed, ahrigaptill liber-tinage.... ... .,'. . .: . . ..•.. ... .•.'. .: ...)' rp.while everyone slept, the monks got up n

one.o. twice for singing/: Matins. and Laudes, while on Jatorre. of the castles, on the.murallas of the cities" in the streetsr; even, the watchmen remained

'" Lttword b~aieitl has no translationfl. it is Ul1 an~d;orlism. It relates to braies (panties), [Translator's note.]


alert. These watched over the temporary security of the city. Those had a spiritual protection over it. We know

that Felipe Augusto, trapped at sea by a storm, declared: "If we can hold out until the hour of May,

tines, we are saved, because then the monks begin the office and reIevate us in prayer, 1 J

II. El ana

The medieval calendar § J l _ of_I~.Lfestivals,.of--the--Church~It does not take place: on July 20, but two days before La Mag-. dalena, nor el1Lde nouiembre1 : i l lJ . Q _ . §J! . ] 1 . . Martin . . Sundays are designated~1??:p--CQe]the-first words of the introit of the mass. Until very recently we talked about Quasimodo Sunday. . . '. . .The garlic began with Christmas, at least .the.year

liturgisp, whose ceremonial cycle c()tnieI1?i~with theadvent.Around the dim year,~adaupo had two customs:

the notaries of the Court of Fr~I1fia and the de)os R~i$es.BIlJos changed the year at Easter, but since this festival is mobile, certain years lasted thirteen months, others eleven, and a certain day of . March or April could correspond, with an interval of twelve months, to the same date of its predecessor of the same name. In other parts there were others. costul1l.pres: in Figeac, the anna began on March 1, but erUse, generalthe center ..of France and many other regions. Q3(3.atryais,Reims.".Molltdidier, LOrena, Colonia, Jn~laterra!:E.scQSia.) adhered to. the. custom of the Annunciation?I1 (2ficie.111!.lrz;pJwhile ..that the west (Anjou, Vendornois, .Norma,n.oia,Soisons} and Dauphine, several Spanish principalities,

They were the one on December 25.. '. . .:> But it doesn't matter what the caI11ries thought, for the

The new village began at the time of Nayidad and Epiphany. In the countryside, the autumn seasons and the winter wheat sowings ended. The work is finished, the harvest[emailprotected], the bacon was in the jcamaric. The great fries were approaching, It was. convenient to shut oneself up next to the fire and spend the hours arranging... or. they skated on-



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he would remember his last ends and the last state to which he had

He wanted to reduce his body. ... . ... .. . .r" From then on and during. forts.~.n••.a.days, the people,/ who abstained from meat and often from eggs and. from milk, would put themselves on a diet of salted herrings and crapots (whale

dry, nourishing but unpleasant food, which only accompanies

\ fiaba with broad beans or dry peas.

Relieved by the sweetness of Thursday of Cuargsl11afestt3 -jadocon cortejos!. del domu:g~ deorn!lmen, pink cough~.d£.1~qetare (Rejoice], ·.cnstlanog arrived at. Se!Il~a .de"'f.ohl ...... The.Iitur gia of that day irn.: applied a process.,ol · ... OP:0 ....tAI.;2. .ll.,)'V. ""···'-A............b..._ ... .--- .. -'-,'_ . _ ..'___-'.,

They were where a donkey was made to appear in memory of the one on whom Christ made his entrance to Jerusalem. re(e~.

sefioreF.y-othergoodcrist ianostepia.t lel honor d? receive

~.!:!~~~§J_£.1inlqosible inI_luI)'lero"of.

SarlLuis"qlle was faithful·aes.ta_pnicticatatrata,ba, as Joinville informs us, to convert=there 10s.d.ignatarlOs of 8U

court, '. ... . ·· C illI ii Viemes Santo 0 viernesad9rado, the Saint. ap a cons-

truidapQrS~ ​​Luis to house an Insigne.. re~quia,

ltioro~§R~s, exposed his treasure to the veneration of

the faithful.... •.... . ··0 ./ ·Lower AlfinestJ.ggria easter: Easter~ say . . . . . . . . . o r n : ( . l ; 7 : } l 9n,also. llannida Carnal Passovers.The cn8tl,~oa. &bs'Z.~J- .

all of •.their sins came (the parish Church to. receive.communion, To. be able to avoid the temptations,()p.~~,;.Certain cities, like Uzes,· expelled ..temporarily...to . the..'young girls lost' for a fluctuating period of which:cediasasehu)ema!as~ The bells, silent for three 'days, chimed,.n,. a' Pfocesian declEn:il'i0s ~itated the arrival of the holy women. to the ..1,lJ;llha.Segfrecla n huev~s color~ad~dos and fasting was broken when <:lragesimal with complclascOplO-

and.careful.Meanwhile, the work in.the camps had recommended





zado. The peasant, hooded, had cut down his trees, dug his vineyard, worked himself. spring soil 'of..~~~/crops (about a quarter of their land), Yllabias~planted the main(3ra~s) wheats and.reseeded the.land.on which.frost or water had thrown perdef losgrf3Jj_oscon tri-.godeinviemo.' .

Pew. the .wars, .appeased .by larl1tlll:l. The turmoil awoke to last, between truces and negotiations until the next day. In case of peace, gold began tournaments, mock battles, which attracted the no-

b~a lociU;-sometimes princely courts and pawns. pro-fe: yes9ni~s that lived on their success as they do, in our time, certain athletes. To the tor.n~Q.f3_11egaAanj\lglaies, singers, acrobats. The .e~oJ:~s_d~ ..bestif.\s,~_loa_c.Q.';ni'7f,cia n tes-:-CIetelas: 'embroideries., .annusy jo:ras" money changers;'ruttll, pesdebos sexes and beggars._AcudianJosB.arientes

de-Jlfrom9s;cabalieroa, suslle.rnlal1'a;~,.sus arnigas. $e, housed .in the. hotels t los; lJ.l1rgueses arren:df?bllll ..ha - .bitl'l.ciones; for 'e 1 restaurant s~levantaPan.toldos.· in the p 1 i I ; . ; ' "' '' ' ,.

zag.° in the meadows of the suburbs#~la d.udad. If some

caJ.'):lpossessed.jaisoteados, with osin·:inpeip.niz~cian,. ~l ·cO-' .local mereio as a whole .also celebrated fruitful .meetings, The houses were adorned with flags.w shields, the ..burghers adorned .their facades with the stelasrna? beUas and lined covers, '-the streets were covered with mint, juneos, gladioli. LascaJles resol}aban. With the noise of the hacks and mortars, bugles and horns that called to the table. . . . '..

.The 19lesj,a:., recognizing that the games were 'preparatory' exercises 'l1l~lit&lIUcitos' in. yes, he .deplored that they had .cob.ve;M;;do} especially at the end of the thirteenth century, on the occasion of .tan.t,o..}uj.o.·mclusive· demertinflje and of

bad sets. The kings $}-, after having appreciated) yes .military futility and estimated that they offered .a derivative to

'too bellicose' customs revealed '.a serious danger in them: the nobility was passionate' with them and acquired excessively luxurious habits ••in a wordv that lost their military spirit there, became corrupted, ruined.i.Unanovsla .from the end' of the 13th century shows us PI a country gentleman who confined himself, during his life, to his mansion, where he led a modest existence, in order to be able to 1-'~


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like Pathelin's, moral tales, allegories and sotties were staged. *,~ . .But e1. religious theater kept the first place.

In the fourteenth century there was Extended throughout all of Christ iandad, compall charities had been created to represent, from year to year, the same ministry. The passion of Oberarn -

mergauY, the way in,. that. extended until ....our days in "a very authentic form this tradition ·me{ti~val.. He

repertoire9 included .stories of saints, p,¢!o,~oJ;>xetodo del Inisterios. extracted from the..history of. JWW9I:eP€ls,.pu~Sae'liLcaida (Juegode.i\dan) until the req~nf!Rn).r the resurrection. ..Recast -.incessantly,. !estOs'lultimos finished by. f0rIlar . lU1,irlinen in a cyclical .•.mystery whose performance .was.staggered over several whole days and required hundreds of actors and participants. Furthermore, carefully prepared, staged with luxury, it became a collective work in which I participated. the whole city and that attracted spectators from distant places.

j The actors, all male, were recruited in '., todasIl~s CTaSes~ocleaaa;Lllduido-loscuras. It closed itself. After the shops, businesses were interrupted, the trades moved, when the procession of actors passed in procession to the Plaza unayor, where a large theater had been built, sometimes a hundred meters long, with a series of monsionsv, following the principle of staging if -multaneous.: At one end, the paradise where God is enthroned with his angels. At the other.extreme.the filthy "Cboeas of Hell"\ from where flames and demons come out.The sculptures of our cathedrals; the-miniatures-of our-manuscripts The upholstery is often reproduced as is.

They were represented in the mysteries. Or, as in England, each that night was represented. ori-

'" Sottie: dramatic genre of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, of sat ir ical,social and political earacter. [Translator's note ,J

"'' ' 'Mansion: in the Middle Ages, a place where a scene was played. (Translator's note: 1 "

gene of the pageant* min rouy prized in the United States]. currently, in Dorat, when they return every seventeen years

The Exhibitions [of relics] still witness something similar: the inhabitants represent, in different points of the city, altarpieces of the lives of the saints whose relics are kept in the church, never, after the Middle Ages, the theater returned

, to take on that character that.it.had.in.thetimes of the Greeks, r of art for all, of art where a.people.entervfrom\ the small to the great, from the IsiI llpIe to the wise,\could.hang.U'l.arrive in. the same grandiose celebration, 'The


\Rella.cirn.into. would have separated the'.'elite" from the, people,hlientras.that ..the Middle Ages .had Iraised. to e~ena . the/graIld .problelUa.s of the ..hUIUan,destiny,embodies.two.in

\ ia known history, cWday comprised by cadamw,


': to constitute the foundation of civilization; by the way

~.0%~~:~!~:~:~r:::ef~0;:6:~~%j:s .•el.PUb1iCOIY ..su

I The. street trade prospered •.. taking advantage of the

beautiful days Small shops, .stalls, were directed to where .pilgrims gathered, derides were held

parties.,. ~e l'fg!.Q_Xll."amen.lJ4p_]a fair exceeded

- festival!..}~., festival.:religious.', Those, whatever their origins, .were, in the 13th century, the maximum .manifestation of international trade, They lasted POI'

whole weeks, they would be related to each other, and they would end up covering each other. the whole year between all of them. The main ones were held under .the.walls of Paris (the Lendit)** and in Cham"pagne .( 'liroyes*** ,.later in<.the 5th century, Lagny, .Bar, Pro-vins),in Douai, 'Ypres . BrujasiJFrancfor(;, Gmebra, Cologne"Leipzig,' Lubeck, Nijni-Novgorod; London, Stamford,

Beaucaire.iBut they prospered above all in the good.stationv as long as the city was not enough to house the newcomersv.everyone who did not '

'" Pageant:pf1.~bm ~;~~~sa which means drama, representation III outdoors. [Translator's note 'J ',

"'''' Lendit: important fair of the Middle Ages that was held in Saint-'Denis and in which the university was supplied with parchment. [Translator's note.] .

" " " " ' L o ~ troy weights, or Troyes peSRS are still used in Anglo-Saxon countries for gold, silver and IRS precious stones:


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Sometimes a continuation of very old pagan cults next to the fountains.

The Feast of the Dead and All Saints (la Martror) were the last great milestones of the year. In defining nature, the liturgy associated reflections on the precariousness of human life and the glory reserved for the immortal soul.

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The 'schools reopened. In the field, they tilled and sowed, the wood was collected, the pigs fattened with the helota were sacrificed, the geese were fattened.

And behold, again, the world was waiting for Christmas.

Chapter III


1. The birth,

. The birth of a child was received with joy in the Middle Ages. Few large families were an exception to this respect. The royal families gave the example: Saint Louis who had had ten brothers and sisters, although BUrriadr'e was left a widow while still young, he had eleven children from his wife Margarita de Provenza. His son Felipe III only had six. Isabella of Bavaria brought twelve into the world, but it is not certain that this was by virtue. The prindpesse aveilian· h' the practice and Santo 'omas de Aquino deda:, 'It is not'perfect home where children do not abort. ' ,Many6's'event$ of In history of the Middle Ages sedan

ii1explicableH~s without this fecundity: the quick repopulation

of the .crisWihdad d!pBafter the wars, and exterminations of the 10$ centuries IX to XI,: the innumerable foundations of cities' of the centuries XII and . x m , the Crmadas, in a riot of a male population, the astonishing Norman adventures, groups of knights in search of situations... Society l;lUsed, then'; the means of fixing BU-excess or dediule output elsewhere. The multiplication of monasteries also "allowed" to collect, to use for tasks of general interest, "exceedents, humans. The population of the Middle Ages expanded, a fact that was all the more remarkable as the decline in catastrophes happened.


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His godparents at birth were the abbots of Saint-Ger-main-des-Pres, Saint-Victor and Sainte-Genevieve, and his aunt, the King's Hermann, and two widows from Paris were his godmothers. Christian thought towards what

At baptism, as in other circumstances, a poor person was placed in the Ingar of honor, and some important people had beggars as godparents. .

SeU eV R?a:al. baby - to : · · . 1 & . igle§iaparrbqilia:l·· a u t i q u e S1.lS


on t~roof~w seen from. St. Louis Chapel, for example, he became a Christian in the parish church of T'oissy and in memory Luis de Roissy sometimes signed, as he said that there he had become a son of God and had received the greatest of all their dignities. -

I POI' 10..general, .10s .godfathers and godmothers chose 0

The .names of the child (a custom that is still in force in our provinces] .. When it came to the son of a gentleman, sometimes a deliberation, "council", was presented among the several high-ranking characters present, at the invitation of the godparents: or else The luck was seventy: in the birth of a prince of Aragon, it was chosen among the patronages of the cloaks. It was written.i.ibecause each.rune of the twelve names on as many other candles that.were lit simultaneously, The one that went out last was dedicated to Santiago the Apostle, and consequently, that was the name given to the royal child.

The baby, naked, was put into the baptismal font, or there he almost did not remain. Dry •carefully '

10 wrapped it again in dry swaddling cloths. Between the 11th and 15th centuries, immersion progressively disappeared before the rite of infusion which consisted of pouring. the water on the child's forehead. It was reduced to removing the little bonnet, instead of undressing it. Then, the new little Christian was returned to

his anxious and happy mother, who sometimes hugged him for the first time. A song of deed complacently describes the ceremonies. s the haste of the parents~ upon the return of the procession: "And. cl-lando Butor (the father) ..10.'saw, .went to meet him, -Lea' said: POI' God, ladies, tell me


-The name of my dear son, if it is your will...

-The ladies do it like this, causing great jubilation -The child was brought to the room to his mother, -And when she saw him, she felt such great joy -That the heart

d,e BU belly was jumping ... ·-:To.the ladies I ask: ~,..tell me now __The"name of.\rmy dear-son that my heart so much;Epn.a _".. Lady, you have such a pleasant name-That

could not;.h~ber. none better or .. bigger .. •.. His. name is Bruno .. (, Is , a hair name j. for a boy? among those of the saints of the calendar, •.as the tradition that in this regard has been preserved in the Anglo-Saxon countries.

, Neighbors were called to share the joy of the family, celebrating and drinking.: A princely birth was. celebrated by all the-subjectst-Ten soon the happy birth of the mother occurred. bells; they were held prisoners, and (my recognition for it) they were required to pray

for the royal blood Te Deum was sung, masses were said, the people danced in the streets around bonfires. When the future John the Good swims, his baptism is celebrated at six in the morning: in the midst of a sumptuous procession: eight bishops and five abbots, two hundred servants carrying torches, a multitude of "adorned and decked out" ladies and gentlemen who do not. they detracted from nothing. When the ceremony was finished, the little prince was

knight, and-presented to the crowd on the steps. "And the people went celebrating the festival, without doing any work, rejoicing with the birth of their prince."

In the early years, that is to say, for two to three weeks, the young mother spent most of the time receiving visits from her friends. If the family was rich, all the treasures of the house were placed in the room on the -oriented 0 in 1 8 . adjoining room, to honor R the visitors, or to dazzle them. Ctistina de Pisan, at the beginning of the 15th century, left to see a young mother, the wife of a middle-class Parisian merchant. And the luxury of the gala room. adorned with tapestries, silks, pleles, silverware, Ie pasrno and scandalous, because it was not convenient



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to reading and writing, introduction to the bookish world of written thought, by which. Theoretically, all the rest of the knowledge can be acquired: In the Middle Ages, it was thought in a rather different way. in this regard, although instruction had spread sufficiently so that in the fourteenth century there were schools in most parts of the world.

de las ciudades./Pero sipara.los clerigcs, la lecturayJa.e~~ritura.:ranelementos de pnmera necesidad, ya quela oracion cotidianadel oficio divino constituia para e110s un deber de 'estado,para Ioscomercia.nteseran apenas·~tilesy paralossenor.e~,artesanos Y villanoseran una comodidad: La lectura perm~tla

follow the?fldO', understand a letter. or even ~c,t.annotate it, in addition to defining oneself in literature or in more~serious knowledge, but books, even in manuscript, were infinitely more scarce than in our days: a library of a dozen volumes was something considerable for A particular. Writing served to keep accounts, I wrote for ne-

/gocios and, less frequently, express -seriti1nientos, 0

sign a record Excellent in themselves, and appreciated, this knowledge 'came, in preparation for life, after other acquisitions of much more importance.

Therefore, education was not directed by totally elaborated ideas, or by a common baggage that was given at the beginning (except for religious training, which was considered fundamental), but, as we would say today, , for professional guidance. On the other hand, this was carried out very early, because, 'It is difficult for a good clergyman to be a good clergyman who does not start from childhood, and he never was ~

Gara well quieti does not learn to do it from a young age. to consider: the son of the peasantry, of the artisan, of the man of laws, of the landlord...Emte... at least the first-born, had his life traced entirely: he would second his father, later succeed him. Faralos minor, sometimes the most delicate question. The youngest son of the farmer could be given with his father to his older brother.~ Ija. earth er? big and rich enough to sustain Jp.~If not, he should move away as a grappler, from "mesonerq" well, like now,


settle in the city as a servant, or apprentice, or enlist in the troop of a lord, of a military chief: The younger sons of small towns, already partially initiated into commerce, often dedicated themselves to peddlers and were the agents of a revival of the intercamblosy of an active economic life. The second noblemen could dedicate themselves to the chivalric life and find employment here or around the country... in wars, or enter what today we call administrative careers, otherwise quite poorly delimited with respect to the military, at the service of ID on -ranomighty. In the thirteenth century, this was a classic resource

;( The daughters were assigned'n~rually~ ~rIl,{l~r~onio.

/~neven needed ad9t~ :[emailprotected]They.could.stay.inthefamilyhomeasunremuneratedhowlersanddeyptas.ButforeveryoneandallElxisti,toanalternatepath:life

religious;. for some, cqns.agra(;ion.' profup,qa, ·.for..others,means.to ensure employment and material and moral security.Some were consecrated by the mercy of their mother from.before they were born and they trap the convent being very children.The great Suger, at five or six years of age, 101l.~vQ.BU.father, a poor peasant, to Saint-Denis where he would later become,.abbot and at the same time..counselor .delrey, EI. Canon law provided that the little novice alone could make final vows in adolescence and until then retained the right to leave. The clerical education he received made it easy to become a notary public notary, businessman, school teacher E31jl:,..

In addition, they were concerned with taking into account the inclinations of the child...», a surer index, his temperament: the ten-year-old boy who was turbulent would be an excellent gentleman, but the one who did not want to "sing or laugh" was, let's say, predestined to the tonsure. Once the main orientation was imparted, education

tion at the beginning was concrete. and praet i ¢ & ,. 'l' had as its objective to adapt the individual as best as possible for his profession and its social condition. Generally, the child was trained in and for the doctor in which he would have to live. To make a complete picture of education.-eeriaprebiso=take one by one

each social class and each profession; Tftirtbien each degree of wealth. The details of it would be endless. We will limit ourselves to ~J


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the military training that was going to be the occupation.ds all BU

life: I learned to ride, to train birds, dogs and horses, to fight against a dummy (the sick), to handle weapons, even heavy work... harden the body, to show off in society, 'I learned to shorten the carries correctly and to play to tables or chess.

When I was fourteen years old, I was going to court

of a prince where his education was perfected, in a society-raras-elegant and more numerous;

His main trade was "short:r:i'in .the month,:~ in front of his master, his wife.t; his, Nj<~. He accompanied his lady hunting, to court, to war tournaments. He played chess, chatted, danced with the ladies and thus became in every sense a man of good society. dances and games, a good swordsman-and flexible enough to snuff out standing a candle placed on top of his head, knew how to read and sing in church and knew many free arts.

"Heinles to open a school anywhere. We are far from the illiterate nobleman that is very often conceived. We also note that this type of education, these tastes, have been perpetuated until our times in the English "society" that in many aspects.continues aiendomedieval.

/' . Finally, the young man was declared a knight; 10 that was not done without parties: Cadav8t masBuntuO:~"cost.oS8B, luckily that 'in the 81 XIV century, many nobles who.no.epodian

I assumed the expenses had to remain as squires all their lives. The reception in the cavalry at first consisted of the simple delivery of the weapons to the recipient who had shown himself worthy of it. Then, the..church~ruspensaa, the princes who had to sanctify and ani11 the king, used force, and dedicated himself to imbuing this in the souls through solemn ceremonies and symbolic expressiveness: the young man bathed, made.confession. 'white dress; he would spend a night praying, he would receive communion, then he would wear. 'un'ttaje ra j 0,

symbol of the blood that was .willing.~ .to shed, received I.



they would once again establish chivalry and impregnate it with snobbery. Together with 111, domestic education, with () without tutors,

there was the possibility of receiving a school education. Already Charlemon was instructing his future officials in the abbey schools in the palace school. In the 10th century, a Fulbert of Chartres, a. Gerbert-de Heims drew students to their Episcopal schools from far and wide. The 13th century gave rise to a resurgence that led to studies; at the beginning of the 13th century, the privileges of the University of Paris were guaranteed, in the 14th century there were a multitude of urban schools:

The.8.episcopal schools.were undoubtedly the oldest.

In Troyes r. for example, we confirm the existence of unes-.tablec.imierito of this type since the VU century •..UI ~ papal decree of 1826 and the Council of. Letran-(1215) forced the bishop to teach grammar and the liberal arts. .epIC!.church and often became clergy. The monastic churches were similar but depended on the day. The spread of the Benedictine order made it proliferate. The influx of schoolchildren caused the educational establishments to multiply, among which the non-Latin schools stood out where they were limited to teaching catechism, singing, reading, writing, a little arithmetic, and the. Latin schools where Latin was the only language used and the main object of study. There, the children cultivated their spirit by following the ancient authors whose texts were read, the highly advanced study of grammar accustomed them to analysis (a quality that has remained eminently French), and the exclusive use of Latin accustomed them to handling it. Thus, medieval Latin, a living, precise, and technical language, was the universal and common instrument of religious, literary, philosophical, legal, and scientific culture. In . all. Europe knew and spoke it and it has not been replaced in its role as an international language (tlal has been maintained in the Catholic Church) and as a learned Som language. r' .The students of the schools were external.



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through experimentation, to the knowledge of man, his use and his destiny;. concerns. that he return-

They came to treat, after an eclipse, our most modern philosophies,

/" Avlas-universidades were frequented by young people who;7 wanted to follow, a position PO T medic of;~, u?listudies, the children of wealthy families, noble or not, your parents sent them to schools. and who took advantage of it,

not so much 'to work as to enjoy there the freedoms of life is est i i i i U 1 £ H ; And fi .ria I m e n £ e - j ) o r a i i tu r e r s , bone ' :'my lazy people who indefinitely prolonged .illusory studies to enjoy the . punishing them, lacking sufficiently energetic means of coercion - it had the justice of the Church, too benevolent - it nevertheless defended these undesirable sheep against secular jurisdictions. This caused very serious difficulties between the university and the king, especially in Paris. At Oxford; bourgeois-and-students-lived in a state of intermittent war,

The students lived in rooms rented by private individuals, or in schools similar to those known with that man in Anglo-Saxon countries or in our residences in university cities. In fourteenth-century Paris there were about sixty, such as the famous Sorbonne, run by Robert de Sorbon, son of peasants and chaplain of St.

Luis. Likewise, in Oxford, John de Calliol, later Walter de Merton and Guillaume de Durham, Bishop of Rouen, made foundations - which are gloriously perpetuated in our


The courses were held in different premises, generally leased by the teachers, and of which the

In the 12th century, men like Bishop Robert Grosseteste, the monks Roger Bacon and Albertoel Grande linked observation, reasoning and experimentation, opened the path to modern science, established the theory of ancient mirrors, They explained the rainbow, studied magnets, etc. And in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, mathematicians such as John Maudith, Richard of Wallingford, Levi Ben Gerson, and Nicolas Oresme designed astronomical calendars, created measuring instruments whose clan-established theory, founded trigonometrics, discovered the use of graphs, formulated They had laws, especially kinetics, which they proved through algebra and geometry. .


more comfortable gave rise to abusive speculations. The teacher sat in a chair, before a desk, the students at his feet, on the rock. They generally point to the sections, from which comes the name of lectures (which is still given to the courses of Anglo-Saxon universities}.

The repeaters repeated them, from . the. which ..some were original ..masters. There were no spiritual tasks I>~to 'the students', but the practice of the discussion pr? yc~~tr~ ,a

thesis,erl'l: that develops,with it. II1ernorla And ~aagih?~dment~,Ta ,m~Ta-dedisculif" Dur~t~ hisstudies, the )6-vgIlE313.copi~ban)lll certain mim~r~ of course~ or·.of .. . ibros queleian, sheet by sheet, in Ill.library depositary, for-

give them ..~}The exams were carried out in Christmas and,.in Lent. conaistian in. J'q1sCllsions "with the examiners. about the issues of the program or about. ~ arguments extracted from a book, .not composed by'elimpetrantei pewremitted for study by him by 'the canceller.

The sanction of lostu, god consisted. in the. collation of

degrees, .whose l1names· we have preserved~~.: ·9~chiller~to.licenciatura, masterazgo I doctorate. These .gJ:ados .'cOEIfenan the right to wear university attire, which mill u8,an' the 'teachers and students.of certain.countries. The new doctor received, with his bir~t;l'l:do, a ring, a symbol of his ties to science. All this was given to him in the course of a religious and solemn ceremony, investiture. U~ga.'in his order to the cavalry.o to the vows of the monk. The day ended with abundant snacks offered by the recipient to their new c01eg8.8. ,/ The children who were destined for handicrafts entered

/;learning. We know his condition very well in Paris.

. from the days of San Luis! p:xes.en., 1268, the provost Etlenn.~Boileau, in charge of the J,ux~sdlcclOnde 108 trades proceeded to the drafting of his pr~cticl'l:s", Although some abstained, 121 submitted .its statutes with the approval of the magistrate

trade. We see then that most of the officers had an or-

corporate organization aimed at the stability and defense of the profession for the maintenance of quality (garnbaque .was given to clients), the fight against hoarding



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spouses conferred on each other. Lastly, for a certain literatura that was born ~11unemployment in a rich and indolent society, it was a social formality, which was not enough to bind the heart nor did it imply love. that our literature of the last fifty years represents our customs).

/ .....E;lll1atrimol1 io rnedievaleraellprimeI: ..ulac:to·ci~r: impQrtancelamiliirr, p u e s theOlidaridtia en'iiuuygr:andee:m

he. sep9··of thef81Uilia, both mascu8 1 lto thatvremained tied to the same piece of land, generation; .after generation .., c ion. The honor of one was that of the others, the grudges of one were shared by the others, and every private matter became, ipso facto, a family matter. In all the important moments of his life, the man was escorted by the entirety of his lineage: to appear before justice, "to engage in a private war, as long as it lasted." , all. his '10... attended .and, this. implied, by hook or by crook, to all his.

that when he introduced a new member into the family, the family had to accept it 16 .

"N~tern()saaermls that a new family did not mean by fW::I":wa new home. Very.frequently it happened,in the city as .in the country, among.nobles as among those who were not, that .the young p The couple stayed at their parents' house, generally those of the husband, or those of the wife when she did not have siblings. This was due to the lack of medicines.

the business gave.. Iplace ..to new competitors and the.economic organization of the family ex~&ia that this.

They gave in this way, grouping around the same "fire and cauldron", brothers and cousins. In this case, the "family community" and not the couple thus created was considered as the social cell. She was the one who forced herself to feed

position, military service, personal benefits

-their members!rps governed each other. To its dissolution and not to the deaths of this or that of its "representatives" was due, in the families, plebeian, which corresponds to our succession rights. Some of these "communities in


implicit" "have lived in good relationships for centuries

"and until. after the French Re~olution."

two families, landowners or lords, and na. good alliance, or for 10 menps peace. Children were bound before they were born or of young age.

en.la ITlisrna.Sllna: .'Apartede8tlimp()ffaneiafamiliarypoHtica-,.eI~matrimo- "

child also brought great financial consequences.

On the other hand, all that constituted a whole. In the position, the social function, the patrimonio cpnstituia an element, a medicine. The man, was integrated with his goods:,? Ara dis-

Putting these, had to be disposed of here; it was not "I)q~ materialism, but by. a concrete, concrete notion.!;.<! ,heiress of.J.ln fiefdom or of a property (peasant .exploitation.iels.good. order of things demanded that .••.a masculine-autofity .take charge of one or the other:.it was necessary;Ja a man.to keep a placejt1erte .-make or obey.for the garrison, ITl, antener

..peace in the lordship, as well as to direct the crops and command the servants, In addition, the father chose his daughter's husband as his successor. If the young woman was an orphan, it was admitted from the beginning that if the interests of the land were great and urgent, the heiress's rights had to be safeguarded.

dices. There was only one solution: get a down-to-earth P81 administrator to give. to the girl time to believe, but ca-

use it as soon as I was old enough, about thirteen or fourteen years old. Yeah. she did not accept the suitors who presented themselves, she had to renounce her rights to enter a convent. This was wisdom itself and no one blamed it. When the young woman had brothers, instead of taking her

husband to his family, she went to his, provided with a dowry that was a greed for the inheritance. Generally; he was made to swear, at least in the south of France, not to claim anything later, from the succession of her parents. "Then, the marriage had an economic importance."

mica. ·Adult cacla. it was,·a productQr;the.children,.ul1a •.wealth.When.the.union took place among themselves. l 1 ~ wt O s "(: Ie 'different lords, the spouse who impoverished his mistress, enriched the other in the same measure. Therefore, the authorization was required.


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would you like to marry, , , and for which we hope to have from you lineage and lord that comes from you, as,successor." very sweetly -r-: .at your will and

pleasure "..-Yes, your desire will be lords.

right). A boy from a smaller family had more freedom to choose.

_ / ' , ..,V e l3 .J ll o_ SGQ IDO l lQ S _ d _E :s cx ib eJ ,U ] . _ _g.entilhQmbre.deLsigloXIV a marriage interview in which I had participated. (Which could even be a scene from provincial life.) and mother. And my father took me to see her. And when we were there, we were treated very well, and good food (good sign). I looked at the one of whom I had been told, and made her speak of a whole number of things to know about her being Thus we entered into the words of captives, of which I told her: 'lady, it would be better to be a prisoner of yours than of many others and (I) think that your prison would not be as hard as that of the

jingleses ..; He replied that recently he had seen the one who wanted me to be his prisoner. And then I asked her if she would give him a bad prison, and she answered me that there was no way and that she would love it as her own body. And I told her that this (here) would be very happy to have such a sweet and noble prison. What would she tell you? She had a lot of language and it seemed very much, according to her words, that she knew

very well and that he had a very lively and light eye. And there he heard many words, 'and always, when he came to talk,. she was very open (daring), because she begged me two or three times not to delay (take) me to come see her. ,. And he had me so attached (united) to her that in so few hours I was BU intimate with her,

although I had never seen him and knew well that they were talking about his and my marriage." And when we left, my father said to me:

it seems 10 that you have seen? Tell me your opinion about it." Then I told him and he replied: "My lord, she seems beautiful and good to me, but I would never be closer than I was, if it pleases you." It looked like her." And the married-

\nno no. was done. ...

As in our days, when young people and families

they agreed the betrothal was celebrated, secured by 1 3 1 exchange of rings. This is how a novel describes the scene: "A ring (the boyfriend) takes <.ie> his finger: -He puts it on his and says: •Friend - I take you for this gold ring (08

I take possession)- to miaIl.1Qrsie'Wpr~JeliW1.lente.' -Yen. His finger put a ring. ' 'Here, two wedding rings: each one received the wedding ring from the other, not only was it an exchange of gifts, but the conclusion of a contract

._._.cQn.Ye_l),idQ..dCOll. . .effects..de~de.fact,-Suhrayerno.s .the~vo(}hablo··employee, which is a technical term of legal language, and let us remember...that the transfer of possession or property was generally carried out, in the Age Media, through a symbolic ceremony and through the delivery of an object, often personal (ring, + glove, knife .. .}, the betrothal by ring was thus something.rnas.than.a.graceful-gesture It was very difficult to obtain the rupture and gave rise to sanctions: (Of. the current jurisprudence of the United States in matter of breach of promise. i "The Church, guardian of the oaths,

especially betrothals following a ritual that, nowadays, is revived in.some.sites. Young men, surrounded by their relatives and friends, would appear in the church where the priest would receive them in a stole and surplice. There, once assured of his name and identity, he asked the ritual questions: "Martin, do you promise to marry Berta with your oath, if the Holy Church consents to it?" Martin responded: "I swear." Then the cleric said in Latin: "And I espouse you in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen."

Ifa admonitions" that usually lasted forty

days, and in 1 3 1 of which the publication (such the meaning of the word admonition) of the projected union was made.

on several occasions, in order to provoke the "declaration" of canonical impediments such as kinship to a prohibited degree, previous undissolved betrothals, which could have prevented the Church from allowing 1 3 1 marriages to take place.

'" Breach of promise: English expression meaning breach of a COID-promise. [Translator's Note. J .it



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part in the wedding, including mr. "Whoever marries in said Ieudo -no~ says a Norman document of the fifteenth century- whether outside the cJt~do! place or inside, ~if he returns to land with his wife, he owes his lord or salaries or just wants to see him eat (to the castle) e~and his wife will take two barrels of wine, a puff pastry and a leg of ox." In addition: "If someone marries in the manor, he owes a piece of meat, two loaves and two oaks, and it must be the same for the woman and 10 must be brought to the man.

quoted.lodge (manor,al) in the company of the musicians who spent time saying it;that they play:'JB6kr roscamesmos who had land, therefore 100 rich enough To cover the operating expenses, they were obliged to give these gifts, generally compensated by the prices -feelings of the lord.

In general, the marriage of widowers caused a mess. But almost everywhere, the newlyweds, whoever they were, had to appear in the course of the year at a popular festival where they were highlighted to everyone's delight. Included in the community of families they submitted to , to that happy hazing that the groups demand ~

frequently to new initiates. On the other hand, the man, who reached his full physical strength, showed himself capable of assuming the masculine role of defending the country.

In a corner of Normandy, "the husband must have been sick

1 0 which means that on the day assigned to him, he had to present

tru~sea horse, ready to ram a pest, which the lord should make him fix (nail into the ground), If he did not have

c~ball0. the lord had to get (one), for which said husband had to pay a quarter of oats, and he was given a birch lance cut on the (same) day, roughly as long as the wrist of the lady, and would have five chances

nI~ades Iright to five repetitions) and if he did not break or if he fell, he had to pay 18 sueldos of fine and a mine of birds.

na", not to mention the ridicule he incurred, the reflections that we cried, , ,

Elsewhere, in C?nde-sur-Risle, the vavasseurs* who killed their prunogemtos or married themselves, had to fight on the Risle river three rounds of urilance, with

,. Vavasseur or vavassal: he who occupied the lowest grade in the feudal nobility. [Translator's note.] .

a foot ern.erradv ell u..a t\)Sh locah..aua 1 : ; . , . 1 Luci,') l.d ~.dll••1Q~.

sick, and they had to be in a boat that Bédirigie-ra with four men down the aforementioned river.

He put on a hat of mother jungle that he sent to his procurer-dar. This 10 carried La Motte, her husbands, in front of the entire assembly. Each of the new wives of the year received this crown in turn from her, she danced, sang a song-and hugged-

zaba to the prosecutor. , , 0 had to pay 60 wages (which was

the ..tarifamasantiguaci.e, Jas-illultas ..Carolingian] •...CeI.Ca..de Hede, the Sunday following their wedding, the newlyweds, after high mass, had to appear at the cemetery ..Every one of the wives sang a song, while the husbands brought a jug of VIDO and a loaf, offered each a piece of cake and a drink of

drink, to M. de Goulaine, the newlyweds had to sing

three songs on the Monday of Pentecost, at the exit of the, "high mass,. at noon and in the place of, the assembly.. l')e. after this they embraced the lord or his representative. Encam-

well, the husbands had to bring each unpl~re~Jnuones

and three sticks. A space of 2 4 .ll~~s squares was delimited, and Mr. or BU representative ..lw~l?~, successively, the balls on the ground that the young people had to send outside the limits of the I play with a rapidoba


IV. sickness and death

The health level of the Middle Ages is quite difficult to know, due to the lack of precise information and statistics. However, we know that infant mortality

It was high, which implied a certain selection, and that the living conditions were quite harsh, and yet healthy. But from time to time, hardships, local or general; wars, took a fraction more or less of the population to a state of undernourishment that could reach famine, and then the epidemics wreaked havoc. The most justly famous is the great plague of 1348-W1349 which wreaked havoc throughout Europe, killing perhaps a 1

91 .


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, . I .

I o deIas.people hurnildes animadflsporun.devote predi-

cfidor, I take you to fimdarh?sI?ir,a)es-~Qspicibs dorde in the first l\!g~he took care of the per~griJ}9s passing through, to the extent that he commuted ~1whoever it was.p,p?,bres And they were far from their own, the erici}n, the ilicurable, those who lived in a room that was too narrow, one of these foundations,

belatedly dem~$"PUesse rem()nta.tan only ~century0Y,r; 'has come up to n~~sothers completely intact:··'e[;,,~IJlos.j} .

piWIQgeneral of J?eaune who has known to maintain,\e.1reghl-.'mentoyel'mohiliru:i(J:me;dieva:l:es;~Let us~rmfte''Verify'the'"practical sense, l~.goodness , the afe,st,Q'>~Uehabian placed 1.11service of the sick. ',,',,'

EIParls of the sig~~)'XlIleb~:~ba)t'Ol1numerosOs hospitals,

of which the 'most important' was the General Hospital, which had already existed since the 19th century and had been rebuilt in the 11th century. But join Qa and 1 se. raised 11.1Trinidad.rSaint-Ger,vais, Notre-Dame-des- Billettes t Saint-Eustache,the Ecueiller,

Saint-Marcel, "S~int-M art in-des-Champs", "Saint-J acques-

du-Haut-Pas, .,'Saip't-Mathurin, .•S~intE)-9at~erine" ....adeIXlascasasespecializaOllsen lallospitali2:aciqn.de ciertbserifer-

mos, such ,cprnoSftint-,Lazare, q~l€atberg~ba to the Ieproscs,the .Fifteen-Y~lgtsfifoundedbySt. Aarre,Pentidfis't'.i,In,the,territori?, of the presentdepartment of t.,A;ube,in Ia m~smEf~po~a, there were counted n omans of 62 h()spl~ales, " ;; , 1999 .

For 10 generations they bore the significant name d~\Mai-

sons-God u'H6t'fJI-God [Marriage, J).ios]; pU,esCdsto;hahiaid: "Whatever hagrus.(}onelriJ,aspefiQ' my gods, 10harewithme' '; 'sincethat errferrno s~ \8.likebaalJ.esuffering, was to the same Lord t' in 11.1ersona of esqs; pohres

pious legends were told: such a patient, a tatto had transfigured himself, showing his nurses .ecstasies. the face of the Savior. In addition, the.regulations of the General Hospital of Paris, are similar to many others and which, on the other hand, reproduce

issued the beredictine prescriptions concerning the guests, decreed: "Receive the sick as a mis-

my Christ (. , , ), treat each sick person with: the head of the household.'




AHise recihifi,:,~,to¢losathose who .1 0 required: was to lah()!3pital'Y.ajb~rgue for the pol?respE)regritlos,. hospi-

ci() ,for,Josal).<;ianos ,'maternity house'¢.IJf,\f~iJas women, and't~bi~n for l~me, home for students in need.He denied la)er1~:adtHllos that he arrived~8.ll with birds and hunting dogs~,;' ,.' " {j\ ..' .,'"""

EI petsonalciE)IIqq$smoking~olnponia.4e religious of 10two$eXOS"flacerd6tes,~'criaBq~ .•It was, J(llixt<)then accepted a

male patients and"1'.~~~nii:lOsPeru the conven-Tu:ales places; tambien1tostef~ctorios, as well as the seTvidos of the Qs'" ..patients were rigorously separated. erroneous men and sisters professed the three vows of poverty

za, chastity and obedience .. , ,> ,

The or~nmalnll.E) regulation, vote it at.5. of larpanana, put him to bed at. 9, and the'.ts: daily celebration of the, minor .office. The food -:had to be "sufficient," 'in> quantity and quality; times POF:~~ITIana.Let's add that when the herwano,s travel to)a~.",))s,Q·l~odian

to accept a.queen }~similar to the;sq~yento 'I>~f9when, by chance, they were guests of~ul101;)ispo, to eat whatever was served to them. In this forll1~'E31e'spkituq the nursing staff was based on Jadis<;ipl1na and shelter.

to herITI~RwY,heXWafi~s,'".conet ..i n c l~ that the collections were not used'in~Qhaving a numerous convent, but in the"

caring for many sick people:~:Ror!~aware, j\er~Jnuy\difficult to get admission co11fQ, rell~ioso'in' elf!ospHal. or 8 years, as acolytes, the girls between the ages of 12 and 20, as "white girls."

ok a square vacancy due to death of an incumbent. The regulation provided in this case as follows: "If a man or woman wants to renounce the world and serve the poor, they should first ask for the consent of the directors. Immediately after it has been read to them the regulation of the order, if

be willing, 6 appserve it, do it. promise, only then will he be presented to the chapter by the 16 directors, if the chapter pleases, will he be admitted to the service of the poor, "the hospital included in each section a room for the

fermos grave~s,Uq.a,for those less affected, and one for the'( . <"y" ,l ,

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stories, were mixed with formulas of devotion or super-

ticion. In the city, male and female male and female nurses were frequently

Frequently lay people, such as the Dominican or Franciscan tertiaries, to whom 3U statute ordered the practice of works of mercy. The members of the cofradias took special care of their confreres. Some are funded for the purpose of providing their members with services

.CiQ~Jlfe~tJJ.Q§_Q§_eI1...?'~Q4eeI1J~r:!J:1.egIl:t:ly.death .In N or-mandia some subsist. In.the city as·oen-eCcrunpo·,

Neighbors and neighbors provided particular help, since proximity created almost kinship ties. .

Medieval medical science was based on a long tradition: that of Greek, Latin, and Arab physicians. De Saler-no, e! revival of special studies had come

r . . ' _ 0 " 1. ,«TTTT _ T"_ " M -J __ llie nT \

00." in e1 sigro.Aur, to rsororua, rvioncpei er and rans. THE stu-

Before, they were linked to a teacher whom they accompanied along with their clientele in order.to.acquire the practice and they followed courses, commented lessons of. Galen, Hip6crates, Isaac, Razes, Little of. anatomy and little dissections: from time to time

From time to time, the students managed to get the PO Neck of an executed man delivered to them.

six years old, and except for a waiver, it was also necessary to teach and

practiced for another two years to obtain the right to the master's degree, equivalent to our current doctorate. and finally, Latin, in addition to the materia proper medici'ts. He needed a long clinical experience, since the diagnosis was based above all on the appearance of the patient and the examination of his urine. In addition, it was required that he have judgment, good manners

and the spirit of his profession, thus defined: "to be kind to the sick, benevolent to his companions, wise

in their predictions. Be chaste, sober, compassionate and merciful, neither greedy nor a usurper of money, so that you receive a moderate salary, according to the work, the faculties of] the patient, the quality of his origin and his dignity". POI' l il t ir I l Q ... had to be religious: "God is the one who has created nature, who governs all bodies, and who, more powerful than nature, governs it in turn." , .}. Therefore, if the sur-


Jano in his operations, he has God in front of his eyes, she will illuminate in the moment of need: he will be able to operate without concern anywhere, but he must not glorify or exalt himself" I comment prior to the letter.. from 1a

famous phrase by Ambrosio Pare. Since this time, medicine "had come a long way,

and by the study of ancient authors and symptoms,

has achieved results, concepts that amaze and that

works of the following centuries have frequently confirmed-········fJ~~d~~~~:l~t~~~~~!~~i~~t~~!C~~~~ ::~~~!;~:::tf~~~:~~: .

that 'the formation of pus was not necessary and should be avoided, while the current practice caused it. But, his ideas and his method, attacked, disappeared with e ~, and only

they were rediscovered in contemporary times. Therapeutics take into account the influence of morality

on the physical: it was necessary to inspire the patient with confidence, comfort him, put his soul at peace, and the statutes prescribed to doctors, in case of acute illness, to ensure that their clients saw the priest. I don't know. worried

by giving a specific medicine (plants, precious stones, strange compounds that were kept in code for a long time, mineral salts were used for this effect: skin diseases were already treated with a mercury ointment, Or for carrying out an intervention (fixation abscess, bleeding, caleulus operation, etc.) yes, also for taking care of the general condition. the greater his age, the change of air, exercise and rest, the institution of diets, hot baths, the regularization of intestinal functions (sometimes abused

purgatives], calm, sleep. Together with this wise medicine, popular theories flourished that have not yet lost their effectiveness. Women and many idiots - declared Guy de Chauliac at the end of the fourteenth century - entrusted those afflicted with any disease to the saints alone, basing themselves on this saying: 'The Lord has given me, the Lord will take it from me whenever He wants,

bandit e1Man. of the Lord. Amen'." And it is known that in Brittany and even more in Normandy, the "evils of saints" II



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Worried about procuring the greatest possible number of intercessions that would shorten the time of his purgatory, and also wishing to break solemnly with. a. In a world in which otherwise he could no longer live IT111cho Tierpo, the dying man frequently asked a religious Ol, of J 1 that he accept to receive the profession from him. Since then, she participated in their prayers and merits and wore the religious habit that she would wear when she died and with which she was buried 511. Body, for that reason, Blanca de Castilla. Dying, against all expectations, he recovered his health. His religious profession was made in extremis and made under the condition

of being buried with the habit of the order to which they had belonged. As the end drew near, they administered the last sacrificial

minds, corr'gram pomp, A lit-candle v. symbol of faith, was placed in the J 'r i; anus of the dying.

baptism. Thus, the life-of-the-Christian-began and ended with the same profession of faith. Then, when he felt that his last moments were arriving, often, out of humility and penance and imitating moriastic practices v-e) sick he would deposit,

tar, in a crude ash on the ground itself or on a

lechp .'.~~"aja y~: in medic-of-prayers.

"caridap""or neighbors' (but in 10 possible.no relatives) arrived to wash the body and dress it: If it was a great personage whose land should not be carried out immediately, they would ()l1¢~b"any. Some measures for body conservation:

taI~col1¢(), the ~application of mercury in the nose, the obturation of the natural orifices by means of soaked plugs

in~l.lstan(jaspesodorantesto,nconsidered.s as+anti-corrup-tor§t'~Xllrl~und6!1of bidsim10on,the.face, These proee-dini!~ll:tO?were altogether insufficient.Very rarely, when haRi~, qtle tr,sladar far away the body and with permission of the auto-ridf!

The abdomen filled with myrrh, aloe and other substances

ornamentals were sewn up again and the body was placed in a sealed pJomo coffin. Or the body was boiled. Thus, it happened that the ondestable Deti Guesciil1 died in Auvergne, and that the king wanted to honor him with a s~, puJtura in Saint-Benis, next to the reflic tombs. His bowels remained in One.llPuy where he had them built a tomb in the church of Saint-Laurent

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table picture. . . . . . . . . '"1uego s e , ( i x pu r i T a e l bodysobfeul11etti:ode 1u jo . H o w

for the great·characters, this.exposicklil' lasted a long time, a.week or more and that, as we have seen, the embalming methods were111uy concise and; ineffective. modeled on the diffito 'and eoloreadac The death masks of Joan of France and daughter of Louis XI have been preserved to this day.

For, 1a tupebre ceremony, .10s.·relatives or. .friends .11e-vabandrs covered the corpse, on hooks, like this, as

still practiced in many rural places. The king of England had the honor of being one of the bearers of the body of llnjo V811, son of §.q.l1 Luis. Deride existed.','c~id~de~"the confreres towards a: a recollection. Where it did not exist, bleak scenes could be appreciated.

begging in the streets, he lost his son, 'unmin~dr 6 years.

She-not telliasilbana, nor diner? to pay for a shroud; he wanted the child to have a decent entiE31t; then, with the little body in his arms, he began to beg uerts"enpul': rta, for several days, to gather the s.Uffianetl?s'~ria. Till1to insisted, finally finding a compatriot

who advised him to ask San Ivo for the resurrection of the child. This story says a lot about the misery of that time. elnino-would have

been, buried'eIrnisl1¢0 days of his apparent death. Such hasty burials appear to be frequent, although Mondeville tells us that they are generally expected.

10 2 103

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together among those of his lord, he received a kiss from 81, etc.), and

to the payment of a fairly high right since in principle it was equal to one year of rent of the land granted and often doubled or tripled. The ceremony fell into disuse in the course of the Middle Ages, but the right was maintained, at first for the benefit of the lord, then, of the king, that is, of the state. We 1 0 still pay. From then on, the succession was regulated more 0

least as 1 0 is now, except that the land

The non-monial estate was generally not divided and generally corresponded to the eldest son, but sometimes also to the youngest: when a peasant farm was too small or poor to support a wealthy family, the children abandoned it as soon as they were old enough to seek employment elsewhere; therefore, the youngest, the benjamin, was the one who got to stay with his father and became the designated heir. When a lord left several fiefs -one non-noble,

many lands _:..'the eldest son chose his part or took considerable amounts. Each of the minors had right away yours. Each son got his share of the movable property,

money, clothes, sometimes the indivision was maintained. In the field they lived

numerous family communities. The lords of Midi-day owned in common small domains and the manor itself. In any case, when brothers or sisters wanted to leave the community, it was necessary to endow them. We know the infantados that San Luis, orphaned from his childhood, created for his brothers: they were not insignificant principalities. As for the daughters, when it was possible, it was preferred to give them money or rents rather than land, which they would have taken, through their marriage, to a foreign family. The patrimony of lands was preserved intact despite

of the debts When the deceased left them i--and the case was frequent since the poor were sometimes in debt to a U.$uro from the city or town, and the lords, due to lack of administration, economic crises and devaluations of income, wars that had ruined or what they had

to defray, sometimes they owed more than one rich lender-creditors appeared, but 8610 could be collected with

thefurniture. Social stability gained with it. The pres-

money smuggler was covered by such iritereses and

such guarantees that the set of his operations did not leave him any loss. On the other hand, the heirs felt

They were obliged to pay the debts, both out of interest in the honor of the family, and to relieve the soul of the deceased who surely suffered until justice was satisfied.

The legally possessed heir of the pater's property ... renewed his titles. The young lord, after the confirmation of his rights by the sovereign, summoned his vassals and received his homage and the declaration of what he po...

be of him In the thirteenth century, it was even a form of personal contact with mutual fidelity commitments: later, this ended up degenerating into verifications of verities that were carried out between men of law: the vassal's notary and the lord's attorney. The new sovereign received the crown in the course of a religious ceremony and made his joyful entrance into his capital; he consecrated the Duke of Brittany Be 1 0 in Rennes, the King of France, in Reims... the joyous people shouted,. (Noell." So life went on.

10 6 107

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that of holiness, where each one was made to establish his place for himself, through his virtues and merits, and where the last became the first. From below, the two hierarchies interfered and the prestige of the saint exceeded that of the powerful or the rich, which explains so many

total conversions. Well, the medieval man had a bad conscience when his conduct was not in accordance with his faith. If happiness depends on comfort, we could believe

gil€! our ..parents were less happy ..than we were: yes.. it depends on our attitude towards life, we can think that that time of metaphysical certainty knew, perhaps more than Ial111€strii. Ialegria, 0 par 1 0 less inner peace and deep balance.


CHAPTER 1. Material life1. Its conditions, 1f).-- II. The house, 23.--

III. The furniture, 28. --' IV. The dress, ~n. v.

Feeding. to 5.

CHAPTER U. The rhythm of time1. The day, 4.1. ~ U. f: l year, 51.

CHAPTER III. The rhythm of life.,1. The birth, 6 iL . ~" . I I. Education, 68.--

ill. The marriage, 81. -- IV. The disease and the

death, 91.








How do I search a PDF document? ›

When a PDF is opened in the Acrobat Reader (not in a browser), the search window pane may or may not be displayed. To display the search/find window pane, use "Ctrl+F".

How do I search for a PDF only on Google? ›

Restricting your search to only find PDF files is therefore an easy way of finding authoritative information freely available on the web. You can do this using the shortcut filetype: in the Google search box. It is also one of the options in Google advanced search.

How do I search for an exact Word in a PDF? ›

Choose Edit > Find (Ctrl/Command+F). Type the text you want to search for in the text box on the Find toolbar. To replace text, click Replace With to expand the toolbar, then type the replacement text in the Replace With text box.

How do I find a PDF book online? ›

8 Best Sites to Download Free PDF Books in 2023
  1. Project Gutenberg.
  2. PDF Reader.
  3. Open Library.
  4. Google Books.
  5. ManyBooks.
  6. Free-eBooks.net.
  7. Bookboon.
  8. Smashwords.
Mar 19, 2023

Can you search a PDF in a browser? ›

Using any browser, open a PDF document. (Right-click > Open with) Access the Find function in the menu bar, or use the shortcut: press CTRL+F (Windows) or CMD+F (Mac).

How do I print a PDF from my phone? ›

Print PDF File from an Android Phone
  1. Step 1: Download a PDF Viewer App. To print a PDF file from your phone, you'll need to have any of the PDF viewer apps installed on your device. ...
  2. Step 2: Open the PDF File. ...
  3. Step 3: Select the Print Option. ...
  4. Step 4: Choose Your Printer. ...
  5. Step 5: Adjust Print Settings. ...
  6. Step 6: Start Printing.
Mar 19, 2023

Why can't I print a PDF? ›

There is a chance that your printer driver is outdated, and that can cause PDF printing problems. Most modern computers have an update center that will notify you when you need to update your printer driver. You might also try searching for updated printer drivers on your printer manufacturer's website.

How do I print a PDF File from my email? ›

Print an attachment
  1. In the message list, click the message that has attachments that you want to print.
  2. Click the File tab.
  3. Click Print.
  4. Under Printer, click Print Options.
  5. In the Print dialog box, under Print Options, select the Print attached files check box.

Why can't I search through a PDF? ›

Problem: Your PDFs Aren't Searchable. It may be that you can't search your PDFs because they don't have any text in them. For example, if your PDF is a scanned document, it's just a picture of a document. It doesn't have any actual text for Windows to index.

How do I search a PDF that is not searchable? ›

If you need to search for certain lines or words within a PDF that is not searchable, you can make your file searchable without having to convert it. To do so, you can either use the Find command or Adobe Acrobat.

How do I open a PDF that is not in Google? ›

How to open a PDF in Adobe Reader, not Chrome or other browsers.
  1. Open Acrobat Reader and select Edit > Preferences.
  2. Click Internet in the left panel of the Preferences menu and then select Internet Settings.
  3. Select the Programs tab.
  4. Click Manage Add-Ons and choose Acrobat Reader in the list of add-ons.

How do I search multiple words in a PDF at the same time? ›

Here's how you can search multiple PDFs for specific words or phrases using Adobe Reader:
  1. Step 1: Place all the PDFs in a single folder. ...
  2. Step 2: Open the Advanced Search toolbar. ...
  3. Step 3: Search through the multiple PDFs.
Jan 18, 2022

How do you find exact words in a document? ›

To open the Find pane from the Edit View, press Ctrl+F, or click Home > Find. Find text by typing it in the Search the document for… box.

How do I search for a specific word? ›

To find specific words in Chrome on Android:
  1. Tap the menu button in the browser.
  2. Select Find in Page and search for the word you need.
Sep 2, 2022

How do I find a free PDF version of a book? ›

PDFBooksWorld Library is an excellent resource for finding free PDF books, including digital versions of public domain books converted into PDF format. The PDF books you will find here are of high quality.

How can I download PDF from any website for free? ›

1. Click on a PDF link on a website, and the browser will automatically open the PDF file in a new tab. 2. Download the PDF by clicking the download button in the top right corner of the browser window.

How do I search for a word in a PDF on my phone? ›

Full-text search in PDF Reader Pro allows you to find words or phrases quickly within PDF documents. 3. Enter the search text you need to look for, tap Search on your keyboard, then it will show all the results and the corresponding page numbers; 4.

How do I search for a name in a PDF in Chrome? ›

Display the Find toolbar by choosing Edit > Find (Ctrl+F). In the text box that appears, search your selected term or phrase. Click the Previous and Next arrows to navigate the highlighted results.

Does Google search read PDFs? ›

In general, yes, Google does crawl PDFs unless they are password protected or encrypted. If the text is embedded as images, Google may process those images to extract the text. The general rule is that if you can copy \ paste text from a PDF document, Google should be able to search pdf content and index the content.

How do I download a PDF on my iPhone? ›

On your Mac, open Apple Books. Then find your PDF file in the Finder or on your Desktop and drag the file into your Library. Your PDF will be available in the Books app on any iPhone, iPad, or Mac, as long as you're signed in to the same Apple ID and have iCloud Drive turned on for Books.

Can I print to PDF on my iPhone? ›

In Detail: How to Print to PDF on iPhone and iPad.
  1. Open any page or image in your browser. Click the Share icon at the bottom centre of the screen.
  2. From the menu, click Options.
  3. Then, select PDF from the Options menu. ...
  4. Next, the below menu will appear. ...
  5. Then, click Save.
  6. Your PDF will then save to your iPhone.

How to convert a PDF to Word? ›

How to convert PDF files into Word documents:
  1. Open a PDF file in Acrobat.
  2. Click on the “Export PDF” tool in the right pane.
  3. Choose Microsoft Word as your export format, and then choose “Word Document.”
  4. Click “Export.” ...
  5. Save your new Word file:

Why can't i print from iPhone? ›

Confirm that your printer supports AirPrint. Contact your printer's manufacturer for details. Make sure that your iPhone or iPad and your printer are connected to the same Wi-Fi network and that you're within range.

Can I directly Print a PDF file? ›

Open your PDF document. Select the icon on the toolbar. From the menu bar select File and choose Print.

How do I open a PDF file on my Android phone? ›

If you need to know how to open PDF files on Android, follow these steps:
  1. Download and install Acrobat Reader from the Google Play Store. Launch the app.
  2. On the bottom menu bar, choose Files.
  3. Locate your PDF file on your Android and select it.
  4. Read your document.

Can you put a PDF directly into an email? ›

Microsoft Outlook: How to Embed a PDF in the Body of an Email and not as a icon. Click Insert > Object in the Text group. For Outlook, click inside of the body of an item, such as an email message or calendar event. Click Create from File > Browse.

What is a PDF and how do you use it? ›

PDF is an abbreviation that stands for Portable Document Format. It's a versatile file format created by Adobe that gives people an easy, reliable way to present and exchange documents - regardless of the software, hardware, or operating systems being used by anyone who views the document.

How do I convert PDF to text online? ›

PDF to Text – Convert PDF to Text Online for Free
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May 15, 2023

Why are some PDFS searchable and some are not? ›

Such image-only PDF documents contain just the scanned/photographed images of pages, without an underlying text layer. Consequently, image-only PDF files are not searchable, and their text usually cannot be modified or marked up.

Can PDFs be read by search engines? ›

Search engines like Google can easily locate and read PDF files on your website. But these documents often lack basic information that help search engines know what the content is about—which ultimately affects your position in search results.

How do I make a PDF searchable but not editable? ›

On Windows, just follow these steps:
  1. Right-click your PDF.
  2. Select Properties.
  3. Choose Read-only.
  4. Click OK.

How do I make a PDF searchable without Acrobat? ›

Steps to Make PDF Searchable without Adobe on Windows or Mac
  1. Download and install PDFMate PDF Conveter Professional on your Windows PC or Mac.
  2. Click “Add PDF” to upload PDFs for conversion.
  3. Go to Advanced Setting and turn OCR ON.
  4. Then choose output as PDF. ...
  5. Click “Convert” to turn PDFs into searchable PDF format.
Feb 2, 2023

Why are PDFs not opening in Chrome? ›

Open Chrome Settings. Click on ''Site settings''. Click on the ”Advanced” button at the bottom. Click on the toggle switch of the heading ”Download PDF files instead of automatically opening them”.

How do you open a PDF file which is not opening? ›

Can't open PDF in your browser
  1. Right-click (Windows) or control-click (Mac OS) the link to the PDF file.
  2. Choose the appropriate save or download option for your browser: ...
  3. Make sure Adobe Acrobat Document is selected for the file type, and save the file. ...
  4. Locate the saved PDF, and double-click the file to open it.
Sep 30, 2022

What is the alternative for PDF in Google? ›

Top 10 Alternatives to Lumin PDF for G Suite
  • DocuSign.
  • DocHub.
  • Adobe Acrobat.
  • Foxit PDF Editor.
  • pdfFiller by airSlate.
  • PandaDoc.
  • Wondershare PDFelement.
  • Xodo Sign.

What is the free software to search PDF files? ›

UltraFinder is the ultimate PDF files search tool. UltraFinder parses the text of PDF files, ignoring embedded graphics and objects, providing you a list of PDF files matching your search text including the matches themselves! The first step to search PDF files is telling UltraFinder to look.

What we used the shortcut for finding words in the document? ›

Press Ctrl+F, and then type your search words.

What is the difference between just searching for a particular word in a document and searching for a word that is whole? ›

The Whole Word expression type is closely related to the Boolean expression type, the main difference being that a Whole Word search looks for word boundary markers for each match, e.g.

What is the tool used to find a similar word in a document? ›

The Thesaurus is a software tool that is used in the Microsoft Word document to look up (find) synonyms (words with the same meaning) and antonyms (words with the opposite meaning) for the selected word.

How do you search for two specific words? ›

You can combine your search terms to create several potential search strategies to find relevant results. For phrases, use " " or ( ) to keep words together & in order. Combining keywords using AND, OR, & NOT is called Boolean searching.

Is there an app to find words in a word search? ›

What is WordSearch Solver? WordSearch Solver is an easy to use free app which allows you to scan any nearby word searches to display hints and exact locations for any words you cannot find.

Which feature starts a new line whenever a word or sentence reached a border answer? ›

The correct answer is Word Wrap. Word Wrap is the tool used to wrap text to the next line as it reaches the right margin in MS Word. When the right margin is reached while typing, a word processor's Word Wrap feature will automatically force content to a new line.

Why can't I search within a PDF? ›

Problem: Your PDFs Aren't Searchable. It may be that you can't search your PDFs because they don't have any text in them. For example, if your PDF is a scanned document, it's just a picture of a document. It doesn't have any actual text for Windows to index.

How do I search a PDF on my desktop? ›

Press the control (Ctrl) button and the F key simultaneously. A text box will pop up — type in the keyword or phrase you want to locate in the box. The first matching word or phrase will be highlighted in the PDF. Use the arrows or the Enter key to navigate between the results.

How do I search a PDF in Chrome? ›

Display the Find toolbar by choosing Edit > Find (Ctrl+F). In the text box that appears, search your selected term or phrase. Click the Previous and Next arrows to navigate the highlighted results.

How to convert PDF to word? ›

How to convert PDF files into Word documents:
  1. Open a PDF file in Acrobat.
  2. Click on the “Export PDF” tool in the right pane.
  3. Choose Microsoft Word as your export format, and then choose “Word Document.”
  4. Click “Export.” ...
  5. Save your new Word file:

Are all PDF files searchable? ›

To understand whether a PDF file is searchable, you need to make sure the file is text-based — meaning that it has to contain real text.

Can Google search read PDF? ›

A: Google can generally index textual content written in any language from PDF files. However, they must not be password protected or encrypted. Google can process images embedded with text using OCR algorithms. Google should be able to index text that you can copy from PDF documents into standard text documents.

Can Google Chrome read PDFs? ›

Open and access PDFs with the built-in PDF viewer in Chrome. Full-featured PDF viewing right from your browser. The Google Chrome browser comes with built-in PDF viewer functionality that enables you to open and access PDFs easily.

Can Chrome read a PDF to me? ›

1. To read a PDF file saved to your computer, right click the file, select “Open With”, and choose “Google Chrome.” 2. Once it opens, select the Read Aloud icon. The following screen will pop up, select “Choose File”.

How can I edit a PDF for free? ›

How to edit PDF files:
  1. Open a file in Acrobat.
  2. Click on the “Edit PDF” tool in the right pane.
  3. Use Acrobat editing tools: Add new text, edit text, or update fonts using selections from the Format list. ...
  4. Save your edited PDF: Name your file and click the “Save” button.

What is the free software to convert PDF to Word? ›

You don't need any other software to convert a PDF to Microsoft Word when you use the Acrobat online tool. Just open the tool in your preferred browser on any operating system, select your file, and let Acrobat complete the conversion online.

Can I convert PDF to Word for free? ›

How to convert PDFs to Word
  1. Click the Select a file button above or drag and drop files into the PDF drop zone.
  2. Select the PDF you want to convert to the DOCX file format.
  3. Watch Acrobat automatically convert the file from PDF to an editable Word document.
  4. Download the converted Word document or sign in to share it.


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